The European Commission has officially announced the tech companies and their services that are considered “gatekeepers” under the new Digital Markets Act (DMA). The list primarily includes major American tech giants such as Alphabet, Amazon, Apple, Meta, and Microsoft, as well as Chinese company ByteDance. These gatekeepers must comply with the DMA’s obligations for 22 core platform services by March 6th, 2024. The DMA aims to address the market power of Big Tech by promoting competition and curbing anti-competitive behavior. It requires major messaging apps to be interoperable with competitors and operating systems to allow third-party app stores and alternative in-app payment options. The full list of core platform services includes social networks, messaging services, intermediation services, video sharing platforms, advertising services, web browsers, search engines, and operating systems. Samsung successfully argued against being designated a gatekeeper with its internet browser, while Microsoft’s search engine, browser, and advertising service are being investigated. Apple’s iMessage service is also being investigated, which could result in it being forced to be interoperable with other services. Compliance with the DMA’s rules is mandatory, and non-compliance can result in fines or even structural remedies. The implementation process may face legal challenges.

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