Apple is reportedly developing noninvasive blood glucose monitoring technology, but its application may take several years due to technical and regulatory hurdles. While noninvasive monitoring has the potential to revolutionize diabetes treatment, it will not replace finger prick tests. Monitoring blood sugar without invasive methods would benefit patients who need to monitor their blood sugar levels regularly. Currently, diabetes patients must either complete a finger prick test or wear a continuous glucose monitor (CGM). Noninvasive blood glucose monitoring will enable doctors to remotely monitor patients more accurately and, thus, expand accessibility for patients in rural areas. However, research into noninvasive monitoring started in 1975, and, in 48 years, no-one has reliably achieved it yet. There are two primary ways of measuring glucose levels noninvasively: through measuring glucose from bodily fluids such as urine or tears, or through spectroscopy. The latter involves shining an infrared light at interstitial fluid, but the low level of the glucose signal makes it difficult to isolate from similar chemicals in the body. Challenges involve water interference, external and environmental factors, and issues with accuracy for darker skin and tattooed individuals.
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