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Thread: India's liquid-propellant SRBM "Prithvi"

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    Senior Member Mohan Tiwari's Avatar
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    India's liquid-propellant SRBM "Prithvi"



    Prithvi-I (SS-150)

    The Prithvi-I is a short-range, road-mobile, liquid-propellant ballistic missile. India developed the missile with assistance. The motor and the guidance system are based on the Soviet surface-to-air missile (SAM) product line. They were already components of the canceled Indian SAM "Devil"program.

    Project “Devil”
    The “Devil” missile was developed by India in the 1970s. The goal of Project “Devil” was to produce a short-range surface-to-air missile through reverse engineering of a Soviet Union high-altitude, command guided, surface-to-air missile.
    The project was overseen by the Defense Research & Development Laboratory (DRDL) of India. The model for Project “Devil” was the SA-2 Guideline, a Soviet Union missile which the DLDR intended to reverse engineer.

    Project “Devil” was officially launched in January 1972. DLDR subcontracted some of its labor, hiring the Hindustan Aeronautics Limited and Bharat Heavy Plates & Vessels Limited to cast a 350kg magnesium liquid-fuel engine frame and a solid-booster respectively.
    In January 1975, the Indian Space Research Organisation was appointed to run an external review of Project “Devil” and in March 1975 found it had been successful in several areas, if not in liquid propulsion, and should be permitted to continue. It ran for several more years before being completely discontinued in 1980, by which point DRDL had produced several components for Devil, including a solid rocket booster with high-strength steel casings and a specific impulse of 200 seconds, and a second stage three-ton liquid-propellant engine, fueled by TG-fuel (a combination of Xylidiene and Tri-ethylamine), oxidized by inhibited red-fuming Nitric Acid and Di-nitrogen Tetroxide.
    The Devil components were later subsequently modified and utilized as components in other systems, for example for the Prithvi missile developed in the 1980s.




    India began developing the Prithvi-I in 1983. The missile is 8.5 m long, 1.1 m in diameter. Its body is made from aluminum alloy and its wings are made from magnesium. There are four clipped-tip delta wings at mid-body and four small aerodynamic control fins at the rear.

    Prithvi is a single-stage missile with a liquid-propellant engine, derivative of the Soviet KB Isayev (derivative of S2.711V engine). It used two motors side-by-side that provide aerodynamic control as well as thrust vectoring. The thrust (app. 2x 35 kN) enabling a variable total impulse to be programmed for different payload and range requirements. The rocket-propellant is most likely TG-02/AK-20F, according to the origin of the engine. The missile has a maximum range of 150 km.
    The Prithvi-I first test flight was in 1988 and it officially entered service in 1994.

    Note: Prithvi- I uses two side by side motors 35 KN each to provide thrust vector & aerodynamics control

    Prithvi-II (SS-250)
    The Prithvi-II is similar to the Prithvi-I in many ways, However, with extended tanks for more fuel.
    India first tested the Prithvi-II in 1996. In its current configuration, the missile is 9.4 m long and 1.1 m in diameter, and weighs 4,500 kg. It uses the same two liquid-propellant engines as the Prithvi-I, however an improved liquid-propellant (TG-02/AK-27I ?) over its predecessor. The engine control allows the missile to stop climbing when it reaches an altitude of 30 km, travel horizontally at this altitude, and dive on its target at an 80 angle.
    In 2002 management of the Prithvi-II was shifted from the Indian Air Force to the Indian Army and also to the Indian Navy. The naval variant is called "Dhanush". The missile has a maximum range of 250 km. Development tests on the Prithvi-II began in 1992. Regular production began around 2002.





    Prithvi warheads




    Single engine

    View into the engine bay

    Engine bay

    Core stage upper part


    http://www.b14643.de/Spacerockets/Di...thvi/index.htm

  2. #2
    Senior Member Mohan Tiwari's Avatar
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    Re: India's liquid-propellant SRBM "Prithvi"

    [MENTION=43]safriz[/MENTION] Notice the "PAD gimbal-controlled solid fuel motor"

    Currently, the “Defence Research and Development Organisation” (DRDO) developing for India an Air Defense System, based on two different interceptor missiles:
    1. Prithvi Air Defense interceptor (PAD)
    2. Advanced Air Defense interceptor (AAD

    The Prithvi-II SRBM is used as target-object for the tests (ground based vehicles called TGT). The naval target version is called "Dhanush"

    Attachment 8178






    Prithvi-II Air Defense (PAD/PADM) interceptor


    The Prithvi Air Defence (PAD) is an anti-ballistic missile developed to intercept incoming ballistic missiles outside of the atmosphere (exo-atmospheric). Based on the Prithvi missile, PAD is a two stage missile with a maximum interception altitude of 80 km. The missile is 10.0 m long, 1.1 m in diameter, and weighs 4,958 kg.
    The first stage is a liquid fuelled motor while the second stage is solid fuelled. It has maneuver gas-thrusters which can generate a lateral acceleration. Guidance is provided by an intertial navigation system with mid-course updates from LRTR and active radar homing in the terminal phase. PAD has capability to engage the 300 to 2,000 km class of ballistic missiles at a speed of Mach 5.The advanced interceptor PADM weighs 5,200 kg and is armed with a "kill vehicle" which is equipped with a innovative system to allow the missile to maneuver. The "kill vehicle" has additional a small solid fuelled motor.


    Attachment 8179






    Attachment 8180
    Last edited by Mohan Tiwari; 20th November 2015 at 19:05.

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    Facebook Editor safriz's Avatar
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    Re: India's liquid-propellant SRBM "Prithvi"

    The engine picture you post here is clearly liquid fuel as you can see the two pumps sat on the top, one for the fuel and the other for oxidizer. Then the Combustion chamber below and the bypass valve on the side in the shape of a downward facing pipe.
    First stage clearly has two such engines and not gimballed. You can clearly see movable small fins on the outside. The second stage has no fins,so that must have gimballed engine or movable nozzle for maneuvering.

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    Senior Member Mohan Tiwari's Avatar
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    Re: India's liquid-propellant SRBM "Prithvi"

    Quote Originally Posted by safriz View Post
    The engine picture you post here is clearly liquid fuel as you can see the two pumps sat on the top, one for the fuel and the other for oxidizer. Then the Combustion chamber below and the bypass valve on the side in the shape of a downward facing pipe.
    First stage clearly has two such engines and not gimballed. You can clearly see movable small fins on the outside. The second stage has no fins,so that must have gimballed engine or movable nozzle for maneuvering.
    True. PAD have two side ways Liquid fuel propelled first stage with two propellants and oxidizers similar to ones used in Prithvi-I/II (SS-150,SS-250) . These engines are replacement for the auxiliary side by side motors that provide thrust vector & aerodynamics control.
    But I don't notice the main liquid fuel engine which were used in Prithvi I/II

    The solid fuel propelled second stage with gas thruster is in the second stage. 2nd stage could be gimballed given the PAD is for ~80 KM mid course interception.

    Most of Indian solid engines uses secondary Injection Thrust Vector Control SITVC (Pitch&Yaw), Roll RCS.Roll control is provided by two Roll Control Thrusters that are mounted radially on opposite sides of the solid engine.


    The PAD is replaced by PDV which is two stage solid rocket engine. PDV is a two-stage missile and both the stages will be powered by solid propellants. it will also have IIR
    seeker

    It all depends upon the high off-bore capability of these ABM. Mimicking 10 G maneuverability will be state of an art.
    Last edited by Mohan Tiwari; 20th November 2015 at 20:37.

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