Page 1 of 6 123456 LastLast
Results 1 to 20 of 108

Thread: Nuclear Chronology of Pakistan

Share             
  1. #1
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England

    Nuclear Chronology of Pakistan

    1953-1970

    8 December 1953
    U.S. President Eisenhower announces the 'Atoms for Peace' proposal to the United Nations in which he declares U.S. willingness to expedite sharing of peaceful uses of nuclear power with other countries. The Pakistani press welcomes the proposed peaceful use of atomic energy and foreign minister Zarullah Khan states that Pakistan does not have a policy towards the atom bomb.
    --"Atoms for Peace: Eisenhower UN Speech," The Eisenhower Institute, 8 December 1953, http://www.eisenhowerinstitute.org/programs/ globalpartnerships/ safeguarding/atomsspeech.htm, (July 2005); Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 34.

    October 1954
    Pakistan announces plans for the establishment of an atomic research body as part of a new organization for scientific and industrial research in Pakistan.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p.35.

    1954
    The Government College at Lahore establishes the High Tension & Nuclear Research Laboratory to provide research facilities in nuclear physics for graduate and post-graduate students.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 36.

    January 1955
    The Pakistani government forms a 12-member Atomic Energy Committee chaired by Dr. Nazir Ahmed. The committee is asked to: formulate an atomic energy program; identify personnel requirements; and plan a survey of radioactive materials relevant to atomic energy research in Pakistan; and advise the government on any other matter pertaining to the peaceful uses of atomic energy.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p.35.

    8-20 August 1955
    Pakistani government representatives at the first International Conference on the Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy in Geneva discuss Pakistan's requirements for nuclear sources of energy.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p.36.

    11 August 1955
    Pakistan and the United States sign an agreement on cooperation concerning the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Under the agreement, the United States offers Pakistan $350,000 in aid to procure a pool type reactor.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.22.

    March 1956
    Pakistan announces the formation of an Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). The commission has two parts: the Atomic Energy Council comprising of two ministers and two secretaries from the federal government and the chairman of the AEC; and the commission itself comprising of the chairman of the AEC and six other scientists.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 35.

    1956
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) plans, "peaceful uses of atomic energy with special reference to survey, procurement, and disposal of radioactive materials; planning and establishment of atomic energy and nuclear research institute, installation of research and power reactors, negotiation with international atomic energy bodies, selection and training of personnel, application of radio-isotopes to agriculture, health, industry etc."
    --Dr. Nasir Ahmed, "The Atomic Energy Commission," Pakistan Quarterly, vol. VII, no. 3, Autumn 1957; cited in, Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 36.

    1957
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) completes a technical evaluation report and drafts proposals for the acquisition of the U.S. CP5-type research reactor from the United States. However, the PAEC's proposal is vetoed by the departments of finance and industry.
    [1.The United States was unwilling to supply Pakistan with a CP5-type of research reactor, which ran on heavy water and offered a light water reactor instead]
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), pp. 38-39, 42.

    1955-1959
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) keeps the supply of the U.S. pool-type reactor pending until 1958. During the intervening yeas, the PAEC board lobbies the finance ministry to allocate resources for the import of a research reactor of the CP-5 type in operation at the Argonne National Laboratory in Chicago; or of the NRX type from Canada. However, the finance ministry rejects PAEC's requests on fiscal grounds.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.23.

    March 1958
    PAEC Chairman Dr. Nazir Ahmad makes a proposal to the chairman of Pakistan Industrial Development Corporation (PIDC) for setting up a heavy water plant with a production capacity of 50kg of heavy water per day at Multan, in conjunction with a planned fertilizer factory. However, the PIDC does not act on the PAEC's proposal.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.24.

    1958
    PAEC Chairman Dr. Nazir Ahmad complains that the acquisition of the proposed research reactor has been delayed because "considerations of a non-technical nature were allowed to creep in..." Ahmad also makes a pointed critique of the problem of "red tape" in Pakistan and demands that the PAEC be granted administrative and financial powers to be able to carry out its objectives.
    --Ashok Kapur, "1953-59: The Origins and Early History of Pakistani Nuclear Activities," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), pp. 38-39.

    March 1959
    The PAEC accepts the government's decision to install a pool-type reactor with regret.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.23.

    1959
    Dr. I.H. Usmani succeeds Dr. Nazir Ahmed as chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). Under Usmani's tenure, the PAEC focused attention on: training and research infrastructure; acquisition of a research reactor; developing a nuclear power program; gaining international recognition for Pakistan's nuclear establishment; and seeking international cooperation for training and nuclear technology supplies.
    --Ashok Kapur, "Dr. Usmani Takes Over, 1960-71," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), p. 53, 70-71.

    1963
    Pakistan begins operation of the 5MW research nuclear reactor at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Research (PINSTECH). The research reactor facilitates research in the fields of agriculture, industry, medicine, and science and technology.
    --"Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 January 1964
    Pakistan's Executive Committee of the National Economic Council (ECNEC) approves a project to build a 137MW nuclear power plant at Karachi with Canadian assistance.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.24

    January 1964-May 1965
    Negotiations over the sale of the nuclear power plant from Canada stall over the question of inspections. Canada insists that the 137MW power plant be subject to inspections. However, the Pakistani foreign office insists the plant not be subject to inspections; and that Canada supply the plant on terms similar to those India obtained from Canada. However, Canadian negotiators insist that Pakistan must accept safeguards so long as it obtains the reactors as part of a Canadian government aid package. However, the inspections clause could be dropped if Pakistan paid for the reactors out of its own resources. The Pakistani foreign office ultimately accepts the Canadian argument. During negotiations for the reactor sale, PAEC also makes proposals for the setting up of a nuclear fuel fabrication facility, a heavy water plant, and a reprocessing facility. However, PAEC's proposals do not meet favor within the Pakistani government and are shelved.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.25.

    May 1965
    The Canadian General Electric Company (CGE) signs a contract with the Pakistani government to build a 137MW heavy water nuclear power reactor on a turnkey basis at Karachi. The Canadian government offers Pakistan a soft loan of $33 million and a supplier credit of $24 million to finance the project.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.24.

    1967
    Pakistan produces the first batch of radioisotopes at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH).
    --"Pakistan Produces Radio-Isotopes," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 20 September 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76,Superkaif


  2. #2
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    1960-1967
    Pakistan sends 600 scientists and engineers abroad for training in the field of nuclear sciences; of these, 106 return with doctorates.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.19.

    1960s
    Some foreign ministry officials propose that Pakistan request the purchase of a nuclear fuel processing facility from France. However, suggestions for a processing facility are overruled by foreign secretary Mohammad Yusuf.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 21.

    1960s
    Pakistani nuclear scientists Dr. Usmani and Dr. Salam urge the government to acquire a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility after India's example. However, their request is denied by finance minister Mohammad Shoab.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 21.

    Late 1960s
    The French nuclear engineering firm Société Générale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN) offers to supply a 100-ton nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to PAEC. However, the proposal is met with disfavor within the Pakistani government and not pursued.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.31.

    1969
    The United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA) agrees to supply a downscaled version of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in operation at Windscale in Britain to Pakistan. The proposed plant has the capacity for extracting 360g of weapons-grade plutonium annually. Subsequently, five Pakistani nuclear scientists: Dr. S.M. Bhutta, M.T. Ahmad, Abdul Majid, Dr. Mohammad Afzal, and Dr. Ehsan Mubarak are sent to Britain for training. The Pakistani scientists recommend to PAEC that instead of obtaining the entire plant from Britain on a turnkey basis, Pakistan should purchase key parts and manufacture other parts indigenously. The scientists also believe that it would be possible to upgrade the plant indigenously to produce weapons-grade plutonium.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 35-36.

    1964-70
    Citing Indian advances in nuclear fuel reprocessing and Pakistan's defeat in the 1965 India-Pakistan war, the Pakistan foreign office and foreign minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto lobby for a nuclear weapons option. However, Bhutto and the foreign office are successfully opposed by a counter coalition comprising of PAEC, the Ministry of Finance, and President Ayub Khan. PAEC makes no attempt to acquire facilities for a nuclear fuel cycle that can provide the technical basis for a nuclear weapons program.
    --Ashok Kapur, "Dr. Usmani Takes Over, 1960-71," Pakistan's Nuclear Development, (New York: Croom Helm, 1987), pp.77-87.

    6 March 1970
    The Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) comes into effect as the United States, USSR, and the Great Britain deposit the instruments of ratification. Pakistan does not sign the NPT.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 6 March 1970; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 March 1970, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1970
    Pakistan builds a pilot-scale plant at Dera Ghazi Khan for the concentration of uranium ores. The plant has a capacity of 10,000 pounds a day.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Roses do not grow in D.G. Khan," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 69.

    20 December 1971
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto assumes power in Pakistan. As a first step in the direction of institution of a nuclear weapons program, Bhutto tasks Munir Ahmad Khan, currently on a stint at the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna, to prepare a report on Pakistan's nuclear infrastructure.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto, A Man in Hurry for the Bomb," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 16-17.

    20 January 1972
    Zulfikar Ali Bhutto holds a meeting with senior Pakistani nuclear scientists to discuss the possibility of embarking on a nuclear weapons program. The meeting is held at the residence of the Punjab Chief Minister Nawab Sadiq Qureshi in Multan. Key invitees include scientists from the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH), the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Quaid-e-Azam University, Islamabad, Government College, Lahore, and the Defense Science & Technology Organization (DESTO). Nobel laureate and former scientific advisor to the Pakistani government Dr. Abdus Salam also attends the meeting. During the meeting, several scientists enthusiastically support the idea of a nuclear weapons program. Bhutto endorses the idea and promises that his government will spare "no facilities and finances" for a weapons program. He also demands that the scientists produce a fission device within three years. Toward the end of the meeting, Bhutto announces that Munir Ahmad Khan will replace Dr. Usmani as Chairman of the PAEC.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Z.A. Bhutto," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 17-18.

    Late April-Early May 1972
    Pakistani metallurgist Dr. A. Q. Khan takes up a job with the specialized Dutch engineering company - Physical Dynamics Laboratory or FDO at its metallurgical section in the Dutch town of Almelo. FDO is a subsidiary of the major Dutch company Verenigde Machine-Fabrieken and is a consultant and subcontractor for the ultracentrifuge process being developed by Britain, West Germany, and Netherlands to enrich uranium. The Dutch secret service - BVD - runs a cursory background check on Khan and grants him a security clearance, "secret inclusive."
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 176-177.

    8-9 May 1972
    Khan visits the FDO plant a week after he starts work to begin familiarizing himself with work and security procedures at URENCO, the consortium working on the ultracentrifuge process.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p.178.

    October 1972
    Two Pakistani nuclear scientists, Dr. Riazuddin and Dr. Masud temporarily working at the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy, return to Pakistan to begin theoretical work on a fission explosive device. The duo are posted at Quaid-e-Azam University and the Pakistan Institute for Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH) respectively. In the absence of the availability of computers, they use the mainframe computers at Quaid-e-Azam University for work related to the theoretical physics of a nuclear explosive device.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp.38-39.

    1972
    Pakistan begins operation of the 137,000-kilowatt Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The plant is expected to supply 25 percent of Karachi's power requirements.
    --"Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1972
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) abandons plans to obtain a downgraded nuclear reprocessing facility from Britain and opens negotiations with Belgian and French nuclear companies for assistance in setting up nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, with the objective of pursuing the plutonium route for a nuclear weapons program.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 30.
    The Following 3 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Fedayeen,Razamustafa76


  3. #3
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    March 1973
    A team of three Pakistani nuclear scientists and engineers comprising of Khalil Qureshi, Zafarullah, and Abdul Majid is sent to the headquarters of the Belgonucleaire at Mol to participate in the designing of a pilot nuclear fuel reprocessing facility as well as gain training in reprocessing spent fuel. Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan favors the Belgian pilot reprocessing plant over the British facility on grounds that it would be difficult for Pakistan to upgrade the downgraded reprocessing plant on offer from the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Agency (UKAEA).
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 36-37.

    27 December 1973
    Dr Munir Ahmad Khan, head of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), announces that large uranium deposits have been discovered in southern Punjab province.
    He also announces an ambitious plan to construct 15 new nuclear reactors in the next 25 years to meet two-thirds of Pakistan's power requirements.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 27 December 1973; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 December 1973, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1973
    Pakistani scientists elect to develop elect to develop an 'implosion' over the 'gun' type of nuclear fission device citing economy in the use of fissile material. Subsequently Dr. Zaman Shaikh, an explosives expert at the Defense Science Laboratories, is tasked with developing explosive lenses for the proposed device.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.40.

    1973
    Dr. Riazuddin travels to the International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Italy, after which he proceeds to the United States to obtain open-source information on the 'Manhattan Project' from the Library of Congress and the National Information Center, Maryland. After his return from the United States, Riazuddin is inducted into the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) as member (technical).
    [1] Dr. Riazuddin later discloses that he worked as part of the team that worked on designs for Pakistan's nuclear explosive device. As he explained, "we were the designers of the bomb, like the tailor who tells you how much of the material is required to stitch a suit. We had to identify the fissile material, whether to use plutonium or...enriched uranium, which method of detonation, which explosive, which type of tampers and lenses to use, how material will be compressed, how shock waves will be created, what would be the yield." Riazuddin also discloses that since Pakistan found it difficult to manufacture beryllium reflectors, the first nuclear explosive device designed by the 'Theoretical Group' used Uranium-238 as a reflector.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp.39-40.

    18 January 1974
    Canada provides line of credit to Pakistan for flood relief activities as well for the maintenance of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, Wall Street Journal, 18 January 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 March 1974
    Senior Pakistani nuclear scientists Dr. Salam, Munir Ahmad Khan, Dr. Riazuddin, and Hafeez Qureshi convene a meeting with the head of the Pakistan Ordnance Factory at Wah cantonment, Lt. General Qamar Ali Mirza, to set up a plant to manufacture His Majesty's Explosive (HMX) for use in the explosive lenses of the proposed implosion-design fission device. The project is codenamed "Research."
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "A Tale of Two Scientists," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.41.

    March 1974
    Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan constitutes a small team of scientists, physicists, and engineers to begin work on a nuclear explosive device. The team's office is located at Wah near Rawalpindi; and because of its location comes to be referred to as the "Wah Group." The Wah Group begins research on conventional explosives used to trigger a nuclear fission device.
    1. Original team members included Hafeez Qureshi, head of Radiation and Isotope Applications Division, Pakistan Institute of Science & Technology (PINSTECH) and Dr. Zaman Sheikh, Defense Science & Technology Organization (DESTO). The group was later expanded to include chemical, mechanical, explosive, and precision engineers.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan's Finest Hour," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 3-4.

    April 1974
    Pakistan signs a contract with France for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The plant is to be constructed at Chashma on the banks of Indus River.
    --"Ban this Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1974, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    18 May 1974
    India conducts a Peaceful Nuclear Explosion (PNE). Following India's test, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto meets with senior Pakistani officials to discuss the implications of India's nuclear tests. A statement by the Pakistani foreign ministry, released after the meeting, states that India's pronouncements of peaceful intentions do not satisfy Pakistan's security concerns. The statement also notes that nuclear programs often incorporate both peaceful and military ends.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 19 May 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 May 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    19 May 1974
    In a news conference, Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto indicates that Pakistan will not be threatened by India's 'nuclear blackmail.' Bhutto also indicates that Pakistan will not alter its current policies.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 20 May 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 May 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 June 1974
    Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto says that India's nuclear program is designed to intimidate Pakistan and establish "hegemony in the subcontinent"; and Pakistan will develop a nuclear program in response to India's nuclear testing of an atomic device. However, Bhutto insists that Pakistan's program will be limited to peaceful purposes.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 8 June 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 June 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 July 1974
    U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) officials predict that about two dozen nations could acquire nuclear weapons over the next decade. According to ACDA officials, countries within immediate reach of acquiring nuclear weapons capability are Pakistan, Japan, West Germany, Argentina, Brazil, and South Korea. Other potential proliferant states include South Africa and Italy.
    --John W. Finney, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 5 July 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 July 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 September 1974
    In a secret memorandum titled "Prospects of Further Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons," the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) predicts that Pakistan will require at least 10 years to carry out a nuclear weapons development program.
    --AP, 27 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 September 1974
    Abdul Qadeer Khan writes a letter to Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto through the Pakistani ambassador in Belgium explaining his expertise in centrifuge-based uranium enrichment technologies at URENCO in Belgium. Khan offers help and urges the prime minister to take the uranium route to a nuclear weapons program. Bhutto responds favorably to Khan's suggestion and directs the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan to meet A.Q. Khan.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p.47.

    18 September 1974
    In an address at an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conference in Vienna, the head of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Dr Munir Ahmad Khan says that Pakistan will ask the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) to declare the South Asian subcontinent to be a nuclear-weapons free zone.
    -- Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 18 September 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 September 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 October 1974
    Pakistan's Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto says that restarting U.S. arms shipments will decrease Pakistan's propensity to develop nuclear weapons. Bhutto further states that Pakistan does not want to spend its limited resources on developing nuclear weapons.
    --Bernard Weinraub, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 14 October 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 October 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  4. #4
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    October 1974
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan directs Bashiruddin Mahmood to prepare a feasibility report on the proposed uranium enrichment program.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 48.

    21 November 1974
    The UN General Assembly approves a Pakistani proposal to create a nuclear weapons free zone in South Asia. The proposal passes by a vote of 82-2. India and Bhutan vote against the proposal.
    --Kathleen Teltsch, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 21 November 1974; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 November 1974, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late 1974
    Dr. A. Q. Khan begins working with the Pakistani government to help develop plans for setting up an ultracentrifuge uranium enrichment plant. In the fall of 1974, Khan translates secret German documents on a technical breakthrough concerning the ultracentrifuge uranium enrichment process for the FDO.
    1. It is suspected that Khan shared this classified information with the Pakistani government.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 178.

    November 1974
    After studying the various technical approaches to enriching uranium, Bashiruddin Mahmood recommends that Pakistan build a uranium enrichment facility based on centrifuge technology. Mahmood's report envisages the completion of the facility by 1979.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success," Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 50.

    1974
    Pakistan and Libya sign a 10-year cooperation agreement.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.


    6 February 1975
    US President Ford indicates to Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto that his administration will give ‘active consideration’ to the lifting of the 10-year arms embargo against Pakistan. In response, Prime Minister Bhutto states that he will place Pakistan’s nuclear reactors under international safeguards if the United States provides sufficient conventional arms that meet Pakistan’s requirements.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 6 February 1975; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 February 1975, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 February 1975
    Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan, Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) has a meeting with Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto. Khan seeks the government’s approval for a $450 million nuclear weapons program that involves (a) the building of a centrifuge plant for the enrichment of uranium; (b) the development of a uranium mine at Baghalchor in Dera Ghazi Khan (BC-1); and (c) the inception of a nuclear weapons design program led by Dr. Riazuddin of the PAEC. Khan obtains the government’s approval and the uranium enrichment program is formally launched under the name ‘Directorate of Industrial Liaison’ in a barrack at Chaklala airport under the leadership of Dr. Bashiruddin Mahmood.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 50.

    9 April 1975
    The Director of the US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA), Fred C. Ikle, warns that several countries are pursuing efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. Ikle warns that such countries are acquiring the means to produce nuclear weapons under the guise of obtaining nuclear technology for peaceful purposes. Although Ikle does not reveal the names of countries believed to be pursuing nuclear weapons, the New York Times claims that it has has learned from “authoritative” sources that the list includes Pakistan, Argentina, Brazil, Libya, Israel, Taiwan, and South Korea.
    —“Ikle Warns Against Nuclear Spread,” Facts on File World News Digest, 12 April 1975; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 February 1975, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    July 1975
    Pakistani nuclear scientist S.A. **** is appointed to the Pakistani embassy in the Netherlands. Later **** is shifted to Paris where he becomes the Pakistani government’s chief purchasing agent in Europe for uranium and plutonium enrichment technologies. **** was one of the scientists who attended the January 1972 meeting that Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto called to discuss the possibility of Pakistan developing a nuclear bomb.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 182.

    August 1975
    Pakistan begins exploring the uranium enrichment route through the centrifuge process in its pursuit of fissile material. One early indication of this comes when the Pakistani embassy in Brussels queries a Dutch company about the possible purchase of high-frequency transformers or inverters.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 181.

    October 1975
    Dr. A.Q. Khan asks one of his colleagues at FDO to photograph drawings of ultracentrifuges that he had at home. The suspicious colleague declines and reports the incident. In response, the Dutch Ministry of Economic Affairs asks FDO to shift Khan to a less sensitive position where he would not have access to documents related to the ultracentrifuge project.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 180.

    Fall 1975
    Dr. A. Q. Khan is tasked to translate sensitive documents concerning a German technical breakthrough in the ultracentrifuge uranium enrichment process from German into Dutch. For this purpose Khan spends 16 days at URENCO’s facility in the town of Almelo. Security arrangements at the facility are lax and a colleague later reports as having seen Khan making notes at his desk in a foreign script. Khan also uses the opportunity to repeatedly tour the Almelo plant.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 179-80.

    Fall 1975
    Dr. A. Q. Khan uses S. A. **** at the Pakistani embassy in Netherlands as a conduit for supplying centrifuge-related technical literature, blueprints, plans for plant design, and lists of equipment and material suppliers to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 51.

    15 December 1975
    Dr. A.Q. Khan returns to Pakistan with his wife Henny and their two daughters. He subsequently informs FDO of his intention to stay on in Pakistan and resigns his position at FDO. The resignation takes effect on 1 March 1976.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 180.

    Late 1975
    Pakistan secretly launches Project 706 (according to another source – Project 726) to produce enriched uranium using the centrifuge enrichment process. The project involves the construction of a pilot facility at Sihala, to be followed by the construction of an industrial-scale plant housing 10,000 centrifuges at the village of Kahuta. Dr. A.Q. Khan takes charge of the new Engineering Research Laboratory (ERL), which is tasked with designing the centrifuges for the proposed facilities. The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) led by Dr. Munir Ahmed Khan is given overall charge of the project, while the military’s Special Works Commission is asked to help with purchases from abroad and construction of the top-secret facilities.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 182; Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 56.
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  5. #5
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    1976
    The Pakistani government approves a plan to build a reprocessing plant and eight nuclear power plants at the Chashma site on the Indus River in Mianwali district. According to plan projections the first nuclear power plant will be commissioned by 1982.
    —“Pakistan Plans to Spend $56 million during the Current Fiscal Year,” Nucleonics Week, 2 July 1981, Vol. 22, No. 26, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 February 1976
    In a testimony before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, US Arms Control and Disarmament Agency Director Fred C. Ikle reveals that the United States and six major industrialized nations have agreed to develop new safeguards and place restrictions on the export of nuclear facilities. Ikle does not provide the names of the countries that have agreed to such controls; but the countries are believed to be the Soviet Union, Great Britain, France, Canada, West Germany, and Japan. He also mentions that the United States is making efforts to persuade Pakistan to abandon its efforts to purchase a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. According to Ikle, Pakistan’s intentions for purchasing the reprocessing plant is to produce nuclear weapons.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 24 February 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 February 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 February 1976
    Pakistan’s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto meets with Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau and refuses to accept Canada’s directions on the use of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant that Pakistan is planning to buy from France. Canada insists on implementing stringent safeguards on the Karachi power reactor, but Bhutto refuses to accept Canada’s proposals. Canadian officials are concerned that the spent nuclear fuel from the Canadian built nuclear reactor in Karachi will be used to run the reprocessing plant and produce Plutonium for nuclear weapons. Bhutto contends that Pakistan is not interested in acquiring nuclear explosives. Bhutto further contends that the deal between France and Pakistan to buy a reprocessing plant has been approved by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 26 February 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 February 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; “Canadian Nuclear Talks Suspended,” Facts on File World News Digest, New York Times, 6 March 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 March 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 February 1976
    Canadian officials state that Pakistan has promised not to divert spent fuel from the Canadian supplied power reactor in Karachi. The officials also indicate that either side can withdraw from the agreement on six months notice. Canadian officials have expressed skepticism over Pakistan’s desire to purchase a spent fuel reprocessing plant from France and suspect that Pakistan will attempt to divert spent fuel from the Canadian supplied power reactor at Karachi.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 27 February 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 April 1976
    Dr. A.Q. Khan addresses a letter to the Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Dr. Munir Ahmad Khan expressing his impatience with the slow pace of the centrifuge-based uranium enrichment project. A few days letter he writes a similar letter to Prime Minister Bhutto threatening to resign his position.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), pp. 51-52.

    April 1976
    During a private meeting with Prime Minister Bhutto, Dr. A.Q. Khan threatens to quit if he is not given formal charge of the uranium enrichment project. In response, Bhutto appoints a committee comprising of A.G.N. Kazi (Deputy Chairman, Planning Commission), Ghulam Ishaq (Defense Secretary), and Agha Shahi (Foreign Secretary) to resolve the matter. The committee rules in favor of giving Dr. A.Q. Khan formal charge of the uranium enrichment project. However, the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is allowed to continue with the plutonium fuel project independently.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), p. 52.

    2 March 1976
    Canada’s External Affairs Minister Allan Maceachen announces the suspension of weeklong talks with Pakistan on the supply of fuel for the Canadian supplied power reactor in Karachi. The talks were initiated during the visit to Canada by Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto.
    — “Canadian Nuclear Talks Suspended,” Facts on File World News Digest, 6 March 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 March 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1976
    Pakistan signs a contract with France for the sale of a nuclear fuel-reprocessing plant.
    —Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, “Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking,” Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 July 1976
    Dr. A.Q. Khan takes formal charge from Dr. Bashiruddin Mahmood of the Engineering Research Laboratory (ERL), the entity instituted to develop centrifuge technology for enriching uranium. ERL is instituted as an independent organization with a three member board comprising of A.G.N. Kazi, Ghulam Ishaq, and Agha Shahi.
    —Shahid-ur-Rehman, “Dr. A.Q. Khan: Nothing Succeeds Like Success,” Long Road To Chagai, (Islamabad: 1999, Print Wise Publication), 53.
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  6. #6
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    8-9 August 1976
    The United States offers to sell 110 Vought A-7 attack aircraft to Pakistan if it agrees to abandon its efforts to purchase a nuclear reactor from France. The first batch of the attack aircraft is expected to be delivered in 1978-1979.
    —Aviation Week & Space Technology, 30 August 1976, Industry Observer, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1976
    The French foreign minister informs US charge d’affaires Sam Gammon of France’s displeasure over US efforts to hinder the sale of a fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The French foreign minister also indicates that France will proceed with the sale of the reprocessing plant. French foreign ministry officials reveal that the sale of the reprocessing plant was approved on 18 March under an agreement reached between France, Pakistan, and the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The French government releases a statement indicating that it is in compliance with all international agreements regarding the sale, including an agreement with the IAEA to ensure that the plant is only used for peaceful activities.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 10 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 August 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; “U.S., Pakistan Discuss French A-Plant,” Facts on File World News Digest, 14 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1976
    Addressing a news conference in Lahore, US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger announces a compromise formula that seeks to avoid confrontation between the United States and Pakistan over Pakistan’s attempts to obtain a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant from France. According to the compromise formula, Pakistan would not be able to divert nuclear material for building nuclear weapons. Mr. Kissinger suggests that an agreement between France and Pakistan that would give France power to veto any plans by Pakistan to divert the nuclear fuel for atomic explosives. Mr. Kissinger also says that the United States will block the sale of 100 A-7 Corsair jet-fighter bombers until Pakistan reaches an agreement with France over the fuel reprocessing plant.
    —Bernard Gwertzman, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 10 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 August 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; “U.S., Pakistan Discuss French A-Plant,” Facts on File World News Digest, 14 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    11 August 1976
    US Charge d’Affaires in Paris Sam Gammon meets US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. After the meeting, Mr. Gammon informs the French Foreign Office Secretary General Francois de Laboulaye that the United States wishes to work out a safeguards agreement for the reprocessing plant that France is planning to supply to Pakistan.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 11 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 August 1976
    In an interview with Radio Luxemburg, Pakistan’s Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto says that Pakistan will proceed with the purchase of the French nuclear equipment despite objections from the United States.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 11 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 August 1976
    French Prime Minister Jacques Chirac rejects proposals for talks between France, Pakistan, and the United States over the sale of a French fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan. Mr. Chirac states that only France and Pakistan must be involved in the issue. US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger states that the United States is only interested in preventing the proliferation of nuclear weapons.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 August 1976
    The French cabinet indicates its intention to proceed with the sale of the nuclear reprocessing plant to Pakistan despite objections raised by the United States.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 26 August 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 August 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 October 1976
    France reaffirms its decision to supply Pakistan with the nuclear reprocessing plant despite its recent assertions to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 13 October 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 October 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1976
    France is unlikely to proceed with the supply of the nuclear reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The change in position is caused by US opposition to the deal and the recent announcement by the Canadian Secretary Donald C. Jamieson that Canada will not supply Pakistan with fuel for its power reactor if France supplies Pakistan with the reprocessing plant. Pakistan’s Foreign Minister Aziz Ahmed and the French Foreign Minister Louis de Guiringauld meet in Paris to discuss the issue. France also sends an envoy to Pakistan to discuss the sale of the reprocessing plant.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 November 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 November 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1976
    Albrecht Migule, owner of the West German firm Ces Kalthof, signs a $2 million deal with a Pakistani textile firm to supply a fluoride plant.
    —“German Firm Cited in Case Involving Sale of Fluoride Conversion Plant to Pakistan,” Nuclear Fuel, 20 July 1981, Vol. 6, No. 15, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 November 1976
    The US Defense Department agrees to the sale of 110 A7 attack planes to Pakistan. The deal is worth $700 million and includes training for Pakistani pilots and supply of spare parts. The deal must be approved by Congress and the State Department. The State Department’s approval is contingent on Pakistan’s abandonment of it’s plans to acquire a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant from France.
    — Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 November 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 December 1976
    The French Nuclear Export Council, chaired by President Giscard d’Estaing, states that France will not supply any fuel reprocessing plants in the future. The decision is taken to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. According to the French Nuclear Export Council, the sale of the reprocessing plant to Pakistan will be completed as planned. French officials, however, indicate their willingness to cancel the deal, but refrain from doing so owing to domestic political pressure. French officials indicate that France would be happy if Pakistan decides to cancel the contract. The French President Valery Giscard d’Estaing is hopeful that Pakistan will cancel the agreement.
    —Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 December 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1976, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 31 December 1976; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 December 1976, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 December 1976
    Canada suspends its nuclear cooperation agreement with Pakistan and indicates that it will not supply uranium for the reactor at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    —“Pakistan Sticks to French Nuclear Deal,” Washington Post, 4 January 1977, First Section, A9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 January 1977, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Milton R. Benjamin, “Pakistan Says France Killing Controversial Nuclear Deal; Pakistan Says France Killing Nuclear Deal,” Washington Post, 24 August 1978, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1976
    Pakistan begins a major purchasing drive in Western Europe for its uranium enrichment project. During 1976, government agents place orders with Swiss and Dutch firms. Specific purchases include highly specialized valves for centrifuges (VAT-Switzerland), a gasification and solidification unit to feed uranium hexafluoride gas into centrifuges (CORA Engineering, Switzerland), and hardened steel tubes (Van Doorne – Netherlands). Exports of these items are not covered under the London Group’s ‘Nuclear Suppliers List’ and the Pakistani government is able to obtain them legally. Although the Swiss and Dutch governments learn that the purchases are related to Pakistan’s planned centrifuge facility, they stick with a narrow interpretation of nuclear export control regulations and do little to interfere the sales.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “The Kindly Dr. Khan,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 182-184.

    1976
    Pakistan attempts to purchase 10-15 tons of uranium hexafluoride gas from the West German company Rohstoff-Einfuhr; but the attempt is unsuccessful.
    —Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, “More Bang for the Buck,” The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 218.
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  7. #7
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    5 January 1978
    The French newspaper Le Monde publishes a report stating that France is renegotiating a nuclear contract with Pakistan to decrease the danger of plutonium production.
    --Associated Press, 6 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 January 1978
    The French President Valery Giscard d'Estaing refuses to comment on the report that appeared in the French newspaper Le Monde that France is renegotiating a nuclear contract with Pakistan.
    --Associated Press, 6 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 January 1978
    Pakistan declares that it is unwilling to accept modifications to the existing contract to build a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.
    --Jonathan Kandell, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 10 January 1978, Pg. 1, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 January 1978
    The French government announces that it is attempting to alter the contract to sell a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The original contract was signed in 1976. The French government is attempting to alter the contract by selling a fuel reprocessing facility that will not produce plutonium. Pakistan's military government is reportedly unwilling to accept the new terms of the contract. France's announcement does not provide any information on steps to be taken if Pakistan refuses to accept the proposal.
    --Associated Press, 9 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 January 1978
    Pakistan's government demands that France deliver the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant according to the original contract "without any modifications." Pakistan's Foreign Ministry spokesperson says that "All international safeguards to prevent the misuse of plutonium as prescribed by the International Atomic Energy Agency have been written into the existing agreement."
    --"Pakistan: France must hold to Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 12 January 1978, First Section, Around the World, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 January 1978
    The U.S. State Department announces that a group of 15 nations have agreed on a 16-provision code to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons. The agreement requires the participating nations to abide by the stipulated provisions in selling nuclear technology. The 16-provision code is being submitted to the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). According to U.S. State Department officials, one of the provisions bans the sale of reprocessing equipment. The provisions, however, are not retroactive and hence do not apply to the French contract to supply Pakistan with a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility.
    --"Nuclear Export Safeguards Detailed," Facts on File World News Digest, 13 January 1978, World Affairs, Atomic Energy; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 January 1978
    At a banquet for the visiting British Prime Minister Callaghan, Pakistan's Chief Martial law Administrator, General Zia ul-Haq, proposes the creation of a nuclear weapons free zone in South Asia.
    --"Head of Pakistan Government Underlines Safeguarding of State Sovereignty," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 15 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 January 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late March 1978
    A British embassy official passes information to the U.S. State Department that Pakistan has placed orders with a British firm for inverters. Inverters are sophisticated voltage control mechanisms that could have applications in a conventional industry or in a nuclear fuel enrichment plant. The British official also discusses U.S. plans to increase attention on the uranium enrichment route to acquire weapons grade fissile material.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 May 1978
    Malaysian Foreign Minister Ahmad Rithauddean Bin Tengku Ismail concludes his visit to Pakistan and leaves for Malaysia. During the visit, both Malaysia and Pakistan express support for each other's initiatives to create nuclear weapons free zones in Southeast Asia and South Asia respectively.
    --"Malaysian Foreign Minister Concludes Visit to Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 7 May 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 May 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 May 1978
    The U.S. State Department withholds nuclear licenses for 12 countries including Pakistan. According to the State Department, the license is being withheld because of Pakistan's attempts to acquire nuclear fuel reprocessing capacity. The amount of plutonium withheld is less than one pound. The plutonium is intended for a research reactor in which the plutonium is irradiated with alpha particles.
    --Thomas O'Toole, "Licenses to Ship A-Fuel Delayed For More Review," Washington Post, 20 May 1978, First Section, A7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 May 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 May 1978
    Pakistan and Turkey sign a Trade Protocol at the second meeting of the Turkish-Pakistani Joint Committee for Economic and Technical Cooperation. Among other issues, the Joint Committee decides to cooperate in the field of nuclear energy and medicine.
    --"Turkey Ratifies Trade Protocol with Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 12 October 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 October 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 June 1978
    Speaking at a banquet in honor of the visiting Chinese Vice-Premier Keng Piao, Pakistan's Chief Martial Law Administrator General Zia ul-Haq lists Pakistan's efforts at the UN to create a nuclear weapons free zone in South Asia and thanks China for its support towards the issue. The Chinese Vice-Premier Keng Piao indicates that the Chinese government will support Pakistan's efforts to create a nuclear-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Pakistani Head of Government Describes Friendly Pakistan-China Relations as Model for Third World Countries," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 17 June 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "China Resolutely Supports Just Struggles of South Asian Countries, Says Chinese Vice-Premier Keng Piao," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 17 June 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    July 1978
    Frank Allaun, a British Labor Party MP, raises a question in the House of Commons indicating that certain components being exported by a British company would enable Pakistan to build nuclear weapons. Allaun claims that the high-frequency electric equipment exactly matches the components used by British Nuclear Fuels Ltd. The British company named is Emerson Electric Industrial Controls, a British subsidiary of the U.S. firm Emerson Electric. Allaun says he received information about the order from "a friend who had a friend." The British government reports back that the items specified in the Allaun's question are not included in the British export control list. The order is placed by a firm called Weargate based in Swansea, Wales. The firm is operated by two Pakistanis.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Ban this Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  8. #8
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    July - September 1978
    The British firm, Emerson Electric Industrial Controls, exports 31 complete inverter systems to Pakistan. The inverter systems can be used to regulate a large number of centrifuge machines in a uranium enrichment plant. The inverters are routed through Weargate Ltd. operated by Abdus Salam and Peter Griffin.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 186.

    Summer 1978
    The Swiss firm CORA Engineering completes fabrication of a uranium gasification and solidification unit for the Kahuta gas centrifuge uranium enrichment facility. The entire plant is airlifted to Pakistan using chartered C-130 Hercules transport aircraft. CORA Engineering also provides engineers and other technical personnel to help with the post-sales servicing. This is the first of the two gasification and solidification units at Kahuta.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 190.

    9 August 1978
    Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq receives a letter from the French president requesting modification in the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The modification would produce a mix of uranium and plutonium that cannot be used to make nuclear weapons. Pakistan objects to the proposed modification indicating that any such attempt will involve radical changes to the facility's design. The Pakistanis also indicate that a significant portion of the partially constructed plant would have to be brought down to incorporate the proposed modification. The Pakistanis further point out that the technique is relatively new and indicate that experiments in the United States reveal that the technique cannot be used on a commercial basis.
    --"French Ask a Contract Revision," Facts on File World News Digest, 1 September 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "France, Pakistan to Resume Talks on Changes in Nuclear Plant Deal," Washington Post, 4 November 1978, First Section, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 November 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 August 1978
    The French President Valery d'Estaing informs Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq of France's decision to cancel the contract for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility. In a letter written to the Pakistani ruler, the French president indicates that the cancellation is based on fears that Pakistan might use the plutonium from the reprocessing facility to build nuclear weapons. In the letter, the French president offers to provide a nuclear co-processing plant that produces a mix of uranium and plutonium that cannot be used to make nuclear weapons. President d'Estaing's decision represents a significant shift from the policy of former Prime Minister Jacques Chirac who was a strong advocate for proceeding with the nuclear deal. Following Chirac's departure, French officials indicate that France has become more concerned with stopping the spread of nuclear technology and President d'Estaing has been attempting to terminate the Pakistani contract for quite sometime. The United States and Canada also pressurized Pakistan to force it to cancel the reprocessing plant deal. As a result of Canada's decision to withhold the supply of uranium, Pakistan's KANUPP reactor has been operating at less than 70% of its capacity.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 24 August 1978, Pg. 43; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Milton R. Benjamin, "Pakistan Says France Killing Controversial Nuclear Deal; Pakistan Says France Killing Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 24 August 1978, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 August 1978
    Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq announces France's decision to back out of the contract to supply a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Releasing the details of the letter at a press conference in Rawalpindi, General Zia ul-Haq says "although it [letter] was full of sentiment, it was a lemon." Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan is not interested in nuclear proliferation but says that Pakistan cannot lag behind other nations in technology. General Zia ul-Haq suggests that Pakistan would acquire such technology from other means if conventional methods are not available. General ul-Haq also denies that China has agreed to provide Pakistan with the reprocessing facility.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Pakistan Says France Killing Controversial Nuclear Deal; Pakistan Says France Killing Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 24 August 1978, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "French Ask a Contract Revision," Facts on File World News Digest, 1 September 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 August 1978
    The U.S. State Department announces that the United States might sign a new aid agreement with Pakistan following France's decision to cancel the contract to supply a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to Islamabad. The United States had earlier cut-off food aid in the fall of 1977 as a measure to pressurize Pakistan to cancel the deal. The U.S. State Department spokesperson Ken Brown states 'We do indeed hope that we can sign a new aid program with Pakistan in the near future." The Carter administration has already asked the U.S. Congress to approve $69 million in development aid for the 1979 fiscal year. The development aid request is distinguished from the $53.4 million request for food aid.
    --"U.S. to Renew Aid to Pakistan," Washington Post, 25 August 1978, First Section, Around the World, A23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 August 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 August 1978
    French spokespersons confirm President Giscard d'Estaing's offer to reopen talks with Pakistan on supplying a modified nuclear reprocessing plant.
    --"French Ask a Contract Revision," Facts on File World News Digest, 1 September 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 September 1978
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission sources indicate that Pakistan has attained the ability to produce radioisotopes that meet more than one-third of Pakistan's requirements. Radioisotopes are used in medicine, agriculture, and industry and scientific research.
    --"Pakistan Produces Radio-Isotopes," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 20 September 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    October 1978
    Pakistan's imprisoned former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto claims that Pakistan was near to attaining "full nuclear capability" prior to his overthrow in 1977. Bhutto claims that "All we [Pakistanis] needed was the nuclear reprocessing plant." In a 319-page document smuggled out of his prison cell, Mr. Bhutto takes credit for developing Pakistan's nuclear energy program and indicates that Pakistan only needs a reprocessing facility to attain nuclear capability.
    --"Bhutto- A-Capability was Near," Facts on File World News Digest, 20 October 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Milton R. Benjamin, "US Officials View Pakistan as the Leading Threat to Join the Nuclear Club," Washington Post, 8 December 1978, First Section, A16; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  9. #9
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    October 1978
    The British government imposes tighter export control laws after a Labor Party member of parliament Frank Allaun reveals that Pakistan had placed orders with a British company for inverters that could be used in a uranium fuel enrichment plant. The British company, Emerson Electric Industrial Controls, is working on 100 more inverters to be supplied to Pakistan when the government imposes further restrictions to stop the export of such components.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 October 1978
    The United States announces the resumption of economic assistance to Pakistan. In 1977, the United States imposed an aid embargo against Pakistan over its efforts to acquire a nuclear fuel reprocessing facility from France. The resumption of aid will provide Pakistan with $122.4 million during the fiscal year 1979. The amount allotted for food aid is $53 million.
    --"US to renew Aid," Facts on File World News Digest," 3 November 1978, Other Nations, Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 November 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fall 1978
    A California based firm exports about half-dozen inverters to Pakistan.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1978
    The United States offers to supply Pakistan with F5 fighter planes. The offer is formally made by the U.S. Undersecretary of State Lucy W. Benson.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Arms Sales to Pakistan Urged to Stave Off A-Bomb There," Washington Post, 6 August 1979, First Section, A7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 November 1978
    Pakistan and France agree to resume negotiations over the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant under construction in Pakistan. An envoy of General Zia ul-Haq meets the French President Valery d'Estaing and hands over a letter from General Haq regarding the resumption of talks.
    --"France, Pakistan to Resume Talks on Changes in Nuclear Plant Deal," Washington Post, 4 November 1978, First Section, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 November 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1978
    Top U.S. officials in the Carter administration consider Pakistan to be the biggest proliferation threat. U.S. officials point to the document written by deposed Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto as evidence of Pakistan's intentions to develop a nuclear weapons program. U.S. officials believe that despite France's withdrawal from the nuclear fuel-reprocessing contract, Pakistan possesses the complete blueprints for the reprocessing facility since France provided Pakistan with those blueprints in 1976. A top US official says "The French have nipped in the bud the short route to proliferation, but the Pakistanis will probably explore a variety of other avenues."
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "US Officials View Pakistan as the Leading Threat to Join the Nuclear Club," Washington Post, 8 December 1978, First Section, A16; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1978, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late December 1978
    Despite the decision by France to terminate the contract for the supply of the reprocessing plant, French technicians continue to work at the plant's construction site in Chashma.
    --"Ban This Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1974, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1978
    Middle Eastern publications report remarks by Libya's Prime Minister offering financial support for Pakistan's nuclear energy projects.
    --"Ban this Bomb-To-Be," Economist, 14 April 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 56; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    1978
    Pakistan's jailed former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto writes, "My single most important achievement, which, I believe, will dominate the portrait of my public life, is an agreement which I arrived at after assiduous and tenacious endeavors, spanning 11 years of negotiations... The agreement of mine concluded in June, 1976, will perhaps be my greatest achievement and contribution to the survival of our people and our nation." --"Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1978
    Libya's Colonel Qadhafi allegedly sends planes carrying millions of dollars in untraceable Libyan cash to finance Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.
    --John K. Cooley, "Qaddafi's Great Aim for Libya is a Nuclear Capability of its Own," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 12 November 1980, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 November 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  10. #10
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    Early 1979
    U.S. officials consider the option of sabotaging the uranium enrichment facility being constructed in Pakistan. The option is rejected owing to its dangerous nature and political infeasibility.
    -- Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 August 1979, Pg. 6, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    21 January 1979
    At a banquet in honor of visiting Chinese Vice-Premier Li Xiannian, Pakistan's ruler General Zia ul-Haq expresses hope for the creation of a nuclear-free zone in South Asia. In his speech, the Chinese vice-premier expresses support for such a zone.
    --"Pakistan President Fetes Chinese Vice-Premier," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 23 January 1978; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 January1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    January 1979
    The United States initiates a diplomatic dialog with the Pakistani government after the U.S. government acquires concrete evidence of Pakistan's uranium enrichment program.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Mid-February 1979
    India's Prime Minister Morarji Desai writes a letter to Pakistani President General Zia ul-Haq expressing concern over Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Indian scientists are reported to have learned from European commercial sources about Pakistan's recent acquisition of large quantities of 'maraging steel,' an extremely hard variety of steel used to make critical components of a gas centrifuge uranium enrichment system. President Zia ul-Haq, in his reply, denies any nuclear weapons program and proposes a joint Indo-Pakistani declaration renouncing nuclear weapons and placing all nuclear facilities in both countries under international inspections.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    February 1979
    The French government retains an ambiguous attitude toward French companies that have contracts for the delivery of mechanical and nuclear-sensitive parts for the plutonium reprocessing plant that was to be built with French assistance in Pakistan. At the urging of Foreign Minister Jean Francois-Poncet, Industry Minister Andre Giraud issues a formal notice to French companies not to supply any further equipment for the Chashma nuclear reprocessing plant.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 200.

    1-2 March 1979
    U.S. Deputy Secretary of State Warren Christopher visits Pakistan. Among the list of high priority items for discussion is Pakistan's construction of a uranium enrichment facility. During the talks, Christopher fails to persuade the Pakistani leader General Zia ul-Haq to abandon the construction of the uranium enrichment plant.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 March 1979
    The U.S. government tightens its export control laws to include inverters and other components that could be used to build a uranium enrichment plant.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1979
    The United States approaches Pakistan to allow international inspections of its nuclear research facilities. Pakistan rejects the request calling it discriminatory since other nations possessing nuclear research programs have not been asked to open their facilities for inspections.
    --"Pakistan Reaction to Cut in Aid by US Over Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 April 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6089/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March - Early April 1979
    According to U.S. officials, Pakistan is informed in an informal way regarding an impending cutoff in economic and military aid.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 April 1979
    The United States informs Pakistan of its decision to cut off economic and military aid as a result of Pakistan's efforts to secretly build a uranium enrichment facility that can produce weapons grade uranium. A U.S. State Department spokesperson also says that the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan has been recalled for "consultations." Pakistani embassy minister Hayat Mehdi is informed that the United States is "winding down in an orderly manner our aid" as required by an amendment to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. Pakistan's Washington embassy spokesperson Khalid Ali calls the aid cutoff as "unfair and discriminatory" and insists that Pakistan is not pursing atomic weapons. Ali points out that no aid cutoff was imposed on India despite its nuclear test and the absence of international inspections in its facilities. The aid cutoff is imposed after the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) confirms reports from European intelligence services that Pakistan is acquiring the ability to make nuclear weapons. Diplomatic efforts failed to persuade Pakistan to place the enrichment facility under international inspection and safeguards. According to U.S. officials, the execution of former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto did not have any bearing on the decision to cancel the aid. The cancelled amount involves $40 million that was approved for fiscal '79 and the entire $45 million that was approved for fiscal '80. An amount of $40 million for food aid is not cancelled. A small military training program grant of $600,000 is also cancelled under the cutoff. However, Pakistan is permitted to purchase equipment from the United States. According to U.S. officials, Pakistan is in the beginning stages of the construction of a uranium enrichment facility based on the URENCO enrichment process. According to U.S. officials, Pakistan will require many years to produce a nuclear bomb. Pakistan, however, is believed to have acquired most of the equipment needed to operate the plant. The United States also believes that Pakistan's ability to procure the equipment from European companies reinforces the inadequacy of existing export control mechanisms regarding sensitive technology. U.S. State department officials insist that the construction of the facility has been continuing for quite some time and reveal that high-level talks have been held between the United States and Pakistan on the issue.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Washington Post, 7 April 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 7 April 1979, Pg. 1, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Foreign Ministry Spokesman on US Economic Aid Stoppage," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 9 April 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US Cuts Aid to Pakistan; A-Arms Threat Cited," Facts on File World News Digest, 20 April 1979, World Affairs; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis
    The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  11. #11
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    8 April 1979
    A spokesperson of Pakistan's Ministry of Foreign Affairs issues a statement denying that Pakistan intends to develop nuclear weapons under the guise of a peaceful nuclear program. The spokesperson terms the aid cutoff as an "act of discrimination against Pakistan." The spokesperson says, "Pakistan which has subjected its nuclear facilities to international inspection has been deprived of its economic aid. Such a policy cannot be termed fair." The spokesperson adds that Pakistan is willing to accept all safeguards arrangements for its peaceful nuclear research if such safeguards are applied in a non-discriminatory manner. The spokesperson explains that Pakistan is willing to have safeguards imposed on its facilities if the United States insists on similar safeguards on the nuclear programs of other countries that have acquired nuclear weapons capability or on the threshold of acquiring nuclear weapons capability. The spokesperson states that Pakistan could not unilaterally allow inspections on its nuclear facilities unless countries with more advanced nuclear programs allow such inspections. The spokesperson also denies that Pakistan is receiving assistance from Libya and other countries for its nuclear program. The spokesperson also indicates that Pakistan had proposed a reciprocal inspection process between India and Pakistan of their nuclear facilities. The proposal, according to the spokesperson, was rejected by India.
    --"Pakistan Reaction to Cut in Aid by US Over Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 April 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6089/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Foreign Ministry Spokesman on US Economic Aid Stoppage," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 9 April 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 April 1979
    Pakistan denies attempts to produce nuclear weapons and links the imposition of aid cutoff to the influence of "Zionist circles" that fear that Pakistan's bomb will be used by the Muslim world to intimidate Israel. Certain reports suggest the involvement of Libya and Saudi Arabia in Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. According to these reports, Libya and Saudi Arabia are financing Pakistan's program in return for access to the nuclear devices.
    --Robert Trumbull, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 9 April 1979, Pg. 1, Column 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    17 April 1979
    The United States plans to sell up to 50 Northrop F-5E Tiger fighter planes to Pakistan and provide assistance on its nuclear power, provided Pakistan agrees to restrict the production of nuclear weapons. The U.S. government also plans to provide diplomatic support "in principle" for Pakistan's initiative to create a nuclear-free zone in South Asia. Several U.S. officials, however, insist that the United States lost its leverage on Pakistan's nuclear program when it imposed a cutoff in military and economic aid on Pakistan. U.S. administration officials also indicate that efforts to persuade Pakistan to abandon its uranium enrichment plant have met with limited or no success. Pakistan insists that any application of safeguards on Pakistani nuclear facilities must be reciprocated by India and India's Prime Minister Morarji Desai refuses to consider any inspection mechanism for India's nuclear facilities. U.S. officials estimate that negotiations with India over the issue of safeguards might last at least until 1980. However, U.S. officials believe that the Pakistani issue needs to be handled in an urgent manner and cannot wait until Indo-U.S. negotiations are completed.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 April 1979, Pg. 3, Column 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 April 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 May 1979
    In a testimony to the Senate Governmental Affairs Subcommittee on Nuclear Proliferation, U.S. Assistant Secretary of State Thomas R. Pickering testifies that the United States has acted too late to keep Pakistan from acquiring the capacity to make nuclear weapons. Pickering states that Pakistan succeeded in obtaining sufficient special equipment for producing weapons grade uranium before its efforts were discovered. He further elaborates that Pakistan achieved its equipment requirements by conducting "end runs" around international export controls. Pickering adds, "We believe we have the capacity to slow down that kind of activity. But no one is willing to say ... we have the ability to stop it." Pakistan will be able to produce sufficient weapons grade uranium to make nuclear weapons in two to five years. Pickering also informs the Senate Subcommittee that diplomatic efforts to persuade Pakistan to abandon its military nuclear program have not produced positive results. India's nuclear explosion in 1974 as well as the general instability in the region contributed to Pakistan's decision to acquire nuclear weapons. Pickering denies that the United States is offering fighter planes and assistance to Pakistan's nuclear power program. He explains that the United States is "... concerned that Pakistan's program is not peaceful but related to an effort to develop a nuclear explosive capacity." However, Pickering refuses to discuss Libya's role in financing the program during the open session. Both he and U.S. Senator John Glenn (D-Ohio) agree that Pakistan worked around the export controls by procuring bits and pieces of equipment around the world by misstating that the components will be used for peaceful purposes like textile industry.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Panel Told Pakistan Gained A-Weapons Ability by 'End Runs'," Washington Post, 2 May 1979, First Section, A15; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Spring 1979
    Pakistan shuts down the reactor at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP).
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Holds A-Option Open; Zia's Remarks Seen Likely to Fuel International Controversy Over his Country's Goals in its Nuclear Power Program," Washington Post, 28 October 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  12. #12
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    Spring 1979
    The U.S. government queries its Swiss counterpart on the sales of high-vacuum valves and the gasification and solidification unit that the Swiss companies VAT and CORA Engineering have sold to Pakistan. The United States also complains that another Swiss company Sulzer Brothers is likely helping Pakistan with plutonium reprocessing technology. On investigating the sales, the Swiss government concludes that the companies have acted legally as the aforementioned items are not on Switzerland's export control list.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "The Kindly Dr. Khan," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 190-191.

    1 May 1979
    The U.S. State Department states that several European countries have pledged support in preventing Pakistan from further buying any equipment for its uranium enrichment program. The Swiss government also announces an investigation to probe the sales made by several Swiss companies to Pakistan. U.S. officials indicate that they are soliciting cooperation from Britain, France, West Germany, and Japan.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Panel Told Pakistan Gained A-Weapons Ability by 'End Runs'," Washington Post, 2 May 1979, First Section, A15; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 May 1979
    U.S. officials confirm that Pakistan has started to build a plutonium plant that will provide an alternative to using weapons grade uranium for its nuclear weapons.
    -- Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 2 May 1979, Pg. 10, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    2 May 1979
    Pakistan's Ambassador to the United Nations Niaz A. Naik rejects an American press report stating that Pakistan is planning to build a nuclear bomb. Naik states that non-peaceful uses of nuclear energy are not helpful for Pakistan's objectives. He also denies any funding of Pakistan's nuclear program by either Libya or other Arab countries. Naik blames the United States for not acting when 200 kg of material that can be used to make about 10 nuclear weapons had disappeared from the United States and was found in other countries. On the other hand, he points out that the United States is accusing Pakistan of making a nuclear bomb even if Pakistan is buying a simple steel pipe for its textile industry.
    --"Other Reports: Pakistan Denies US Report on Nuclear Bomb Manufacture," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 May 1978, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6114/A1/3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 May 1979
    The Swiss government announces that it is investigating the sale of equipment to Pakistan that could be used to make enriched uranium for nuclear weapons. A Swiss government spokesperson indicates that the investigating authorities intend to find out the nature of deliveries made to Pakistan by the Swiss companies. The investigation will also verify if the exported equipment needed authorization for delivery. The spokesperson indicates that the United States prompted the Swiss government to investigate the matter.
    --"Swiss Probe Sale to Pakistan," Washington Post, 3 May 1979, First Section, Around the World, A32; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    21 May 1979
    Pakistan and Maldives issue a Joint Statement reaffirming their support for the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Pakistan, Maldives Call for Creation of Nuclear Free Zone in South Asia," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 22 May 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    27 May 1979
    The Carter administration proposes the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia in order to prevent an arms race between India and Pakistan. The proposal requires India and Pakistan to abandon the pursuit of nuclear weapons and allow international inspection of nuclear facilities. According to U.S. officials, the proposal will be backed with security guarantees by the United States, USSR, and China. The guarantor countries are also expected not to threaten either India or Pakistan with nuclear weapons.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 27 May 1979, Pg. 8, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 May 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 May 1979
    The French Atomic Energy Chief Michel Pecqueur writes to President of CEA-owned industrial affiliate Cogema Georges Besse inquiring whether the company SGN is continuing technical assistance for the plutonium reprocessing facility in Pakistan, despite the cancellation of the contract by the French government. Pecqueur writes, "it is hardly necessary for me to stress the seriousness of the facts, should they be in any way confirmed, as transactions of this kind would call into question the national policy on nonproliferation at the very highest level."
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 196.

    31 May 1979
    Georges Besse writes to SGN President F. X. Poincet inquiring whether SGN is continuing nuclear-related transfers to Pakistan. In his reply, Poincet denies that SGN is selling any contraband materials to Pakistan. He admits however that SGN is continuing with limited involvement in relation to "preparation of orders" for some Pakistanis who are still "resident" at SGN. However Poincet hints that Pakistan may have gone behind their backs to procure equipment specified in documents supplied by SGN earlier. The nuclear industry's trade journal Nucleonics Week alleges that Pakitsan has access to 95 percent of the design plans for the plutonium reprocessing facility and these will likely enable Pakistan to finish the plant despite the termination of French assistance.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 196.

    16 June 1979
    A spokesperson for Pakistan's embassy in Washington DC states that Pakistan did not request or receive any financial assistance from Libya for its peaceful nuclear program. The spokesperson indicates that Pakistan understands the concern over the spread of nuclear weapons, but cautions that discriminatory or selective policies will not decrease the threat. The spokesperson adds that Pakistan is willing to support any regional or collective efforts to tackle the threat of nuclear proliferation.
    --"Pakistan Denial on Libyan Aid in Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 23 June 1979, Part 3 The Far East, 4. The Middle East, FE/6149/A4/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    Third Week of June 1979
    The U.S. government forms an interagency taskforce comprising of officials from the State Department, Energy Department, Intelligence agencies, and military officials to frame policy options to deal with Pakistan's attempts to develop nuclear weapons. The interagency group, called the "Gerry Smith South Asian Study Group," is headed by Gerald C. Smith, the U.S. Ambassador-at-large for nonproliferation. The study group is expected to produce a report in September.
    -- Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late June 1979
    The French Ambassador to Pakistan and his senior colleague are beaten outside the Kahuta nuclear research facility, 25 miles south of Islamabad. The French Ambassador and his colleague were apparently on a sightseeing tour.
    --"Journalist Attacked," Washington Post, 30 June 1979, First Section, Around the World, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  13. #13
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    28 June 1979
    Pakistan allocates $48,000,000 for its nuclear program for the year 1979-80 in its annual budget. The funds will be utilized for various activities like buying equipment for laboratories and a nuclear research centre, uranium exploration, building a fuel reprocessing plant, and other administrative activities.
    --"Pakistan Protest to UAA Over Nuclear Bomb Allegation," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 July 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6163/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 June 1979
    Pakistan denies report that it is planning to conduct a nuclear test in October. Pakistan indicates that it will lodge a formal protest with the United Arab Emirates (UAE) government over a report in the magazine Eight Days that reported that Pakistan is planning to conduct a nuclear test in October. The magazine is owned by Sayid Muhammad Mahdi at-Tajir, the UAE's Ambassador to Britain. A Pakistani Foreign Ministry official terms the report as "highly damaging and irresponsible" and claims that Pakistan did not procure any restricted equipment. The Pakistani official offers to open the Kahuta facility to international inspections and says that Pakistan will honor international safeguards. Kahuta is the location for the uranium enrichment facility being built by Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan Protest to UAA Over Nuclear Bomb Allegation," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 July 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6163/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 June 1979
    According to the Reuters news agency, Dutch authorities are investigating reports that Pakistan obtained information on uranium enrichment from that country. Also sources in UN circles believe that Pakistan is making attempts to explode a nuclear device in the near future.
    --"'Pravda' on Reported Pakistani Development of Atomic Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 30 June 1979, Part 1. The USSR, 3. The Far East, SU/6155/A3/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    30 June 1979
    Chris Sherwell, a British journalist and a correspondent for the Financial Times and the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is beaten up outside the house of Dr Abdul Qadeer Khan in Islamabad. The journalist is investigating allegations regarding Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. The Pakistani government denies any responsibility over the event.
    --"Journalist Attacked," Washington Post, 30 June 1979, First Section, Around the World, A13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    30 June 1979
    Pakistan's advisor on Foreign Affairs Agha Shahi rejects reports in the Western press that Pakistan's nuclear research program is intended for building a nuclear bomb. Mr. Shahi denies that Pakistan is receiving financial assistance from Libya or any other Arab country for building an Islamic bomb. Mr. Shahi also denies allegations that Pakistan is manufacturing a hydrogen bomb and says that the hydrogen bomb is beyond the reach of a developing country like Pakistan. Mr. Shahi condemns the demands to open Pakistan's nuclear facilities for inspections and questions why such demands are not placed on Israel and South Africa.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Denies Western Reports About Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3 July 1979, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6157/A1/4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    June 1979
    U.S. President Jimmy Carter and the Soviet President Leonid Brezhnev inconclusively discuss Pakistan's nuclear weapons program during their summit meeting. U.S. President Carter also corresponds secretly with leaders in France, West Germany, Japan, Britain, and other nations. The United States is also engaging China in its efforts to deal with Pakistan.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    June - July 1979
    Sources indicate that Pakistan is attempting to explode a nuclear bomb in October. Pakistan's security forces are reported to be working around Hoshab, a small desert town located 60 miles inland from the Makran coast in southwestern Pakistan. The region is inhospitable and a few nomads living there are reported to have been re-located to different areas. Reliable reports suggest the presence of military construction activity in the area. Experts indicate that Pakistan might test a nuclear bomb in 1979 only if it receives sufficient weapons-grade material from another source, since its reprocessing plant and its uranium enrichment plant are still far from operating at full capacity. Experts suspect that source to be China.
    --"Pakistan: A Clue to the Bomb Mystery," Economist, 14 July 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 60; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late June - August 1979
    The interagency group tasked with framing policy options for dealing with Pakistan's attempts to build nuclear weapons believes that it is difficult to stop Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. The group cites the following reasons for its observations. First, according to U.S. technical experts, Pakistan has acquired most of the technology needed for the uranium enrichment plant. According to these officials, technology denial by Western industrial countries will not stop Pakistan's construction of the enrichment facility. Second, Pakistan's military government strongly supports the development of nuclear weapons. Third, Pakistan's development of nuclear weapons is inter-linked with other complex global issues.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    4 July 1979
    Sources indicate that Pakistan can possess the ability to explode a nuclear device before the beginning of autumn. The location of the testing site is highly classified and believed to be located near Multan in Punjab province. Another possible location for the site is the Chitral region in the northwestern border region. According to sources, two Pakistani scientists employed in Holland have returned to Pakistan and are believed to be working on the nuclear weapons program. The Pakistani government has allocated generous funds for the completion of the project. Sources believe that Pakistan possesses sufficient plutonium to conduct one nuclear explosion.
    --"In Brief; 'Enough Plutonium' for Pakistani Nuclear Device," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 6 July 1979, Part 1 The USSR, A. International Affairs, 3. The Far East, SU/6160/A3/3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  14. #14
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    5 July 1979
    A Pakistani official spokesperson, referring to the recent incident involving the British journalist Chris Sherwell, claims that Sherwell took advantage of the government's cooperation and liberal attitude and acted in a manner that was harmful to Pakistan's security interests. The spokesperson alleges that Sherwell illegally attempted to obtain information on Pakistan's nuclear research program even though sufficient information was provided by the Foreign Office, the Atomic Energy Commission, and the Information Ministry. According to the spokesperson, Sherwell entered a restricted area and tried to contact officials who were not qualified to provide interviews. Referring to the incident that resulted in the beating up of the journalist, the spokesperson says that Pakistan's law prohibited the scientist from granting interviews and Sherwell should not have attempted to visit the official. The spokesperson says that the government is preparing a report about the incident and based on the final results, the government will decide if the journalist will be allowed to stay in the country.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Official on BBC Correspondent's Activities," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 July 1979, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6163/A1/4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    6 July 1979
    The Pakistani government charges the British journalist Chris Sherwell with committing acts that are prejudicial to Pakistan's security. Sherwell is accused of "snooping and trespassing" security areas with the objective of obtaining information on Pakistan's nuclear research program. The government denies any responsibility over the assault on Mr. Sherwell.
    --"Pakistan Accuses Journalist," Washington Post, 6 July 1979, First Section, Around the World, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    28 July 1979
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq declares that he would not compromise on Pakistan's sovereignty regarding its peaceful nuclear program. Addressing the nation, the President says that Pakistan requires nuclear energy to meet its growing energy requirements. The President states that economic aid to Pakistan has been cut off despite the peaceful nature of the nuclear program. General Haq claims that Pakistanis have supported the government in absorbing the impact of the aid cut-off and declares that "we shall eat crumbs but will not allow our national interest to be compromised in any manner whatsoever."
    --"Pakistan President Reaffirms Peaceful Nuclear Programme," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 29 July 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 July 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.


    1 - 4 August 1979
    Senior Democratic and Republican members of the House Foreign Affairs Committee write a letter to the Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance outlining a proposal to provide new "security support" to Pakistan in order to halt Pakistan's efforts to build a nuclear bomb. The proposal included providing Pakistan with conventional arms to meet its security needs. The letter urges the Carter administration to "understand and more effectively treat Pakistan's underlying security concerns." Rep. Clement J. Zablocki (D-Wis), chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Committee and a signer of the letter, suggests that arms sales on credit might be undertaken by presidential waiver of the sanctions or some other legal procedure. Rep. Paul Findley (R-Ill), another signer of the letter, indicates that Congress might have to amend the anti-proliferation act that led to the aid cutoff. The United States terminated military and economic aid to Pakistan in April as stipulated in an amendment to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. The other signers of the letter are Rep. William S. Broomfield (R-Mich), Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY), and Rep. Lee H. Hamilton (D-Ind).
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Arms Sales to Pakistan Urged to Stave Off A-Bomb There," Washington Post, 6 August 1979, First Section, A7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 August 1979
    A U.S. Senator, Charles Percy (R-Ill), states in Calcutta that Pakistan intends to produce nuclear weapons that can hit New Delhi, Bombay, and Calcutta.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 August 1979
    The Carter administration is considering several initiatives to prevent Pakistan from acquiring nuclear weapons. The efforts range from imposing stringent economic sanctions to supplying advanced conventional arms. One of the options being considered includes undertaking covert operations using paramilitary forces to sabotage Pakistan's uranium enrichment plant. The other two options are imposing harsh economic sanctions or providing Pakistan with advanced conventional weapons like the F-16 fighter planes.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 August 1979, Pg. 1, Column 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US 'Campaign' Against Pakistan's Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 August 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6195/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US Seeks A-Project Halt," Facts in File World News Digest, 17 August 1979, World Affairs. Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 August 1979
    U.S. State Department spokesperson, Thomas Reston, says that covert action is not under consideration as an option to prevent Pakistan from acquiring nuclear weapons capability.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 August 1979
    The U.S. State Department refutes reports that the United States is planning a sabotage action to disrupt Pakistan's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. The report citing such a plan appeared in the New York Times.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Reaction to Alleged US Threat to Nuclear Plants," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 15 August 1979, Part 3 The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6194/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 August 1979
    Pakistan's politicians and government officials react strongly against a news report suggesting that the United States is considering a commando raid against Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Pakistan's Defense Minister Ali Ahmed Talpur says that Pakistan will not compromise on its nuclear program. A news report in the Karachi newspaper, The Star, says that anti-aircraft guns are being positioned around nuclear installations to deter any attack against them. According to the report, a task force has been formed to prevent any hostile acts against Pakistan's nuclear facilities.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Reaction to Alleged US Threat to Nuclear Plants," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts," 15 August 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6194/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 August 1979
    Pakistan's Foreign Ministry summons the U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan Arthur Hummel and expresses serious concern over the efforts by the U.S. government to threaten and intimidate Pakistan's government over its peaceful nuclear program. The Foreign Ministry informs the Ambassador that such actions by the United States will harm peace and stability in the region. The Foreign Ministry also informs the ambassador that Pakistan might lodge a protest in an "international forum" if the United States persists in its efforts to threaten Pakistan's nuclear program. The Foreign Office also terms the recent statement by U.S. Senator Charles Percy regarding Pakistan's nuclear program as an "incitement" for India.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "US 'Campaign' Against Pakistan's Nuclear Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 August 1979, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6195/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  15. #15
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    14 August 1979
    A senior State Department official states that a covert operation to sabotage Pakistan's uranium enrichment plant is "not an option that we seriously or systematically considered." The official states that the United States wants to pursue good relations with Pakistan despite its objections to Pakistan's plans to develop nuclear weapons. According to a U.S. sources, the United States is also discouraging India from pursuing any paramilitary action to disable Pakistan's uranium enrichment facility being constructed. Pakistani officials are not content with the assurances provided by the State department and insist that the reassurances "did not rule out the option of action by paramilitary forces ... which will amount to outright aggression."
    -- Don Oberdorfer, "US Denies Covert Plans in Pakistan; Possible Sabotage to Reactor Discounted," Washington Post, 15 August 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 August 1979
    U.S. State Department spokesperson Thomas Reston states that the United States policy towards Pakistan is "under constant review" and denies reports of covert operations to sabotage nuclear facilities in Pakistan.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 15 August 1979, Pg. 11, Column 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 August 1979
    According to U.S. officials, unconfirmed reports suggest that Pakistan is preparing an underground site for testing a nuclear device.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 17 August 1979, Pg. 6, Column 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late August 1979
    Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq writes a letter to India's Prime Minister reaffirming that Pakistan's nuclear program is only intended for peaceful purposes.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 August 1979
    South Asian sources suggest that Pakistan might detonate a nuclear bomb at an underground testing site before the country's general elections are held in November. Pakistani President General Zia ul-Haq hopes to win popular support by exploding a nuclear bomb. However, certain U.S. State Department officials express doubts over Pakistan's ability to conduct a nuclear test for at least several years.
    --Melinda Beck, "Pakistan's Political Bomb," Newsweek, 27 August 1979, Periscope, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 August 1979
    Pakistan's President General Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan will acquire nuclear energy for peaceful purposes despite the challenges in acquiring such a capacity.
    --From News Services and Staff Reports, Washington Post, 29 August 1979, First Section, Around the World, For the Record, A14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 August 1979
    In his radio address to the nation, Pakistan's President General Zia ul-Haq declares that Pakistan must acquire nuclear energy to meet its power requirements. Haq declares that Pakistan's nuclear program is only intended for peaceful purposes. The Pakistani president asks France to honor its commitment to supply a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant and states that Pakistan will acquire a reprocessing plant under any circumstances. Haq deplores the propaganda spread in Western media against Pakistan's nuclear program and states that Pakistan will not give up its claim to acquire nuclear technology. The Pakistani president further reaffirms Pakistan's commitment to create nuclear weapons-free zones in the Indian Ocean and the South Asian regions.
    --"Broadcast by President Zia ul-Haq," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3 September 1979, Part 3. The Far East, C. Pakistan: Relations with Kabul, Nuclear Energy, Elections, FE/6209/C/1 (A1, A3, B, W); in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    August 1979
    A truck carrying uranium from a mining plant in Niger is found overturned and empty. The uranium is believed to have been diverted to Libya, which is believed to support Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --Associated Press, 26 November 1979, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    August 1979
    U.S. intelligence agencies estimate that Pakistan can explode a nuclear bomb by the end of this year. Previous intelligence estimates predicted that Pakistan would need four years to develop nuclear weapons.
    --"US Seeks A-Project Halt," Facts in File World News Digest, 17 August 1979, World Affairs. Pakistan; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    August 1979
    Pakistani officials reveal that Libya's Colonel Muammar Qaddafi offered to finance Pakistan's acquisition of the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in return for the plutonium produced by the plant. According to Pakistani officials, the offer was rejected by Pakistan and Qaddafi cancelled a plan to finance a French-Pakistani contract to build a submarine. U.S. officials indicate that they cannot ascertain the existence of a deal between Tripoli and Islamabad over Pakistan's nuclear plans but they also do not rule out the presence of such an arrangement.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    August 1979
    According to U.S. officials, photographs of the heavily guarded and elaborate Kahuta plant being constructed indicate that the objective of the facility is to produce enriched uranium. According to U.S. officials, Pakistan's civilian nuclear program does not need such large quantities of enriched uranium. U.S. officials estimate that Pakistan will be able to produce weapons grade uranium after three to five years of construction and operation of the enrichment plant. Pakistan, however, needs natural uranium to fuel the plant and officials believe that Pakistan will be able to procure sufficient quantities of natural uranium. Differing estimates are given regarding the time period needed for Pakistan to produce a bomb. Some U.S. officials estimate that Pakistan can produce a bomb in as quickly as two years whereas others predict that problems in construction and operation might delay the production of enriched uranium or even stop the enrichment effort. Pakistan also continues to work on the plutonium route. Pakistan is continuing work on the partially built French reprocessing plant even after France withdrew assistance for construction of the plant. According to informed estimates, Pakistan is expected to produce weapons grade plutonium in six to 10 years. Pakistan also possesses a pilot "hot cell" reprocessing capability at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). The pilot reprocessing facility can quickly produce small amount of bomb material if the right elements are present.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  16. #16
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    August 1975 - August 1979
    According to a U.S. estimate, Pakistan spends $100 million for its uranium enrichment program annually. However, the total cost is likely to be several hundred million dollars. A major concern is that Pakistan might export highly enriched uranium to reclaim some of the costs.
    --Don Oberdorfer, Michael Gatier, and Maralee Schwartz, "Pakistan: The Quest for Atomic Bomb; Problem Discussed by West, Moscow, Peking," Washington Post, 27 August 1979, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 August 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 September 1979
    Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser Agha Shahi meets India's External Affairs Minister S.N. Mishra. During the meeting, Shahi says that Pakistan does not wish to produce a nuclear bomb and informs Mishra that Pakistan is proceeding with a uranium enrichment plant based on a light-water reactor purely for economic reasons and for conducting research and development activities.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 - 7 September 1979
    Agha Shahi, Pakistan's Foreign Affairs adviser provides the first official pronouncement that Pakistan is developing a uranium enrichment capability.
    --"Pakistan; Baiting the Trap," Economist, 8 September 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs, International, Pg. 69; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 September 1979
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq meets with India's External Affairs Minister S.N. Mishra and informs him that he had made a unilateral statement renouncing nuclear weapons during his radio address to the nation. The Pakistani President made a radio broadcast on 30 August before leaving to attend the NAM summit in Havana. The Pakistani president informs India's External Affairs minister that his unilateral statement was based on a suggestion by India's Prime Minister Morarji Desai who himself had made such a statement renouncing nuclear weapons. The Pakistani President also informs that Pakistan does not possess the capacity to produce a nuclear bomb and also expresses that Pakistan is not interested in making nuclear weapons.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 September 1979
    An official Indian spokesperson states that the Indian government is examining the letter sent by the Pakistani President.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 September 1979
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Munir Ahmed Khan, states that foreign powers cannot dissuade Pakistan to abandon its nuclear development program since Pakistan's economic progress is dependent on Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear technology. The PAEC Chairman states that Pakistan's energy requirement at the end of the century would be 27,000 MW of electricity out of which 16,000 MW can be generated through atomic energy. According to Munir Ahmed Khan, Pakistan needs to set up its own fuel reprocessing to maximize its energy utilization. According to the PAEC chairman, the reprocessing plant would enable Pakistan to re-use 79% of the spent fuel and produce plutonium that could be used in the future breeder reactors.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan-India Talks in Havana: Nuclear Issues," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1979, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6215/A3/10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Nuclear Energy," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 3 October 1979, Part 3. The Far East, Weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Production and Transport, FE/W1051/A/27; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis "Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 September 1979
    According to official figures, Pakistan is spending $40 million for its nuclear energy program.
    --"Pakistan: The Bomb Behind the Wall," Economist, 15 September 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs; International, Pg. 62; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 September 1979
    Addressing a group of prominent citizens at the Governor House in Karachi, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan must acquire nuclear energy to meet its increasing energy requirements. President Zia ul-Haq underscores the importance of nuclear energy in Pakistan's development. The president also criticizes reports about the 'Islamic Bomb' and says that such stories are falsely spread by 'Zionist' circles.
    --"Pakistan to Acquire Nuclear Technology for its Own Needs," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 21 September 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 September 1979
    In an interview, Pakistan's president Zia ul-Haq rejects the claim that Pakistan is making a nuclear bomb and requests U.S. President Jimmy Carter to reconsider the decision to cut off military and economic aid to Pakistan. President Zia ul-Haq acknowledges that Pakistan is building a facility for enriching uranium but indicates that it will only be used to produce energy. The Pakistani president reiterates that no Pakistani government can compromise on the nuclear issue under U.S. pressure and denies reports that Pakistan is collaborating with Libya to develop nuclear weapons for the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). The Pakistani President expresses confidence that France will provide the nuclear fuel-reprocessing plant and indicates his willingness to implement all safeguards including allowing the posting of French officials at the facilities.
    --Seymour Topping, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 23 September 1979, Pg. 14, Column. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  17. #17
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    12 October 1979
    Pakistan is reported to have halted the construction of the uranium enrichment plant at Kahuta. The shortage in the supply of parts from Europe is believed to have resulted in the halt.
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 12 October 1979, Pg. 4, Column. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 October 1979
    The United States and Pakistan begin two days of talks over Pakistan's efforts to produce weapons-grade highly enriched uranium. The talks are held between U.S. Secretary of State Cyrus R. Vance and Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser Agha Shahi and several other high-level officials.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Uranium Parley with Pakistanis is Inconclusive," Washington Post, 18 October 1979, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 October 1979
    The United States and Pakistan hold a final round of talks in the afternoon and the United States indicates that no decision has been taken. Agha Shahi, Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser states that differences continue to exist between Pakistan and the United States over the nuclear issue. Both sides agree to continue high-level discussions in the future. The economic and military cut-off, imposed by President Carter in April under U.S. law, can be lifted only after President Carter certifies that Pakistan will not develop or acquire nuclear weapons or assist other nations in acquiring such weapons. Despite the assurances provided by Mr. Shahi, the United States is not willing to accept such promises. Mr. Shahi also refuses to confirm or deny the recent news report that Pakistan had halted work on the construction of its uranium enrichment plant owing to a shortage of parts from Europe. U.S. officials also refuse to confirm the report indicting a lack of sufficient information. The talks also discussed improving the security situation in Pakistan by upgrading the armed forces. Some members of U.S. Congress and Carter administration officials have recently proposed that the United States supply Pakistan with advanced conventional arms in return for Pakistan's commitment to abandon its nuclear program. It is not sure if the United States made such a proposal during the talks.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Uranium Parley with Pakistanis is Inconclusive," Washington Post, 18 October 1979, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 - 17 October 1979
    During the talks between the United States and Pakistan, little information is provided by Pakistan regarding the planning of the uranium enrichment facility.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Effort to Block Pakistan from A-Bomb Faltering," Washington Post, 20 October 1979, First Section, A3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 - 20 October 1979
    Following the conclusion of two day of talks between Pakistan and the United States, U.S. officials are less confident about persuading Pakistan to abandon its nuclear weapons program. The talks also reduce the certainty of U.S. estimates that Pakistan is at least two years from conducting a nuclear test. Pakistan's Foreign Affairs Adviser Agha Shahi informs members of the U.S. Congress that Pakistan is willing to provide a "no explosion" pledge for the duration of the current Pakistani government. Shahi indicates that Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq cannot make promises that could extend beyond the current administration and bind subsequent Pakistani administrations. He also suggests that Pakistan is willing to bring all nuclear facilities under international safeguards and inspections provided India also implements such measures. A recent U.S. intelligence estimate quotes a Pakistani official mentioning that Pakistan possesses the necessary material to build a bomb.
    -- Don Oberdorfer, "Effort to Block Pakistan from A-Bomb Faltering," Washington Post, 20 October 1979, First Section, A3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 October 1979
    Pakistan plans to build a new nuclear power plant in the Punjab province. The plant's capacity will be 600,000 kilowatts and the plant will use an enriched uranium fueled light-water reactor.
    --"Pakistan Makes Achievements in Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 October 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 October 1979
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan is committed to pursuing nuclear research for peaceful purposes and does not preclude the possibility of conducting a nuclear test. Responding to a question whether Pakistan would set off a nuclear explosion, President Zia ul-Haq states that "... we said our program is entirely directed toward nuclear sources of energy and not toward the making of any nuclear bombs. If in the process steps have to be taken, we will take them."
    --Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 28 October 1979, Pg. 9, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Holds A-Option Open; Zia's Remarks Seen Likely to Fuel International Controversy Over his Country's Goals in its Nuclear Power Program," Washington Post, 28 October 1979, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 October 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fall 1979
    Efforts are made to mine low-grade uranium ore in the Baghalchur mining area near Dera Ghazi Khan Province, west of Multan. Tenders are being accepted for the construction of roads in the region. The ore is refined at the Atomic Energy Mineral Centre in Lahore built with French assistance. New equipment is also being installed at the Chashma barrage site on the Indus River. The installed equipment can be used to produce nuclear fuel rods.
    --"Pakistan: The Bomb Behind the Wall," Economist, 15 September 1979, World Politics and Current Affairs; International, Pg. 62; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 November 1979
    The UN First Committee adopts a resolution on creating a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. The resolution is sponsored by Pakistan. The resolution calls upon all states in South Asia and other non-nuclear weapon neighboring states in the region to make efforts to create a nuclear-weapons free zone in South Asia. The resolution also urges the nations to eschew activities that go against the resolution.
    --"UN General Assembly Committee Adopts Denuclearization Resolutions," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 22 November 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 November 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 November 1979
    The British newspaper Sunday Times reports that Pakistan has acquired the technical knowledge to produce a hydrogen bomb and mentions that Pakistan might test its first thermonuclear device in April. The report mentions that the desert hijacking of uranium ore in Africa and Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear components in Europe have enabled it to advance its nuclear weapons program faster than the estimates made by the United States and other countries. The new report identifies two sites that could be used for testing. One of the sites is in the Sind desert and the other testing site is in South Balochistan. According to the report, Pakistan's three nuclear facilities are working continuously under heavy guard. The report quotes a military official saying that "Only God, an accident or another coup can stop it."
    --Associated Press, 26 November 1979, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  18. #18
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    8 December 1979
    Pakistan's president, while inaugurating an International Symposium in Biology and Genetics and an International Congress on the History and Philosophy of Science, states that "our [Pakistan's] stand is that we want to acquire nuclear energy for peaceful purpose and this is a right of which no power can deprive us."
    --"Pakistan to Continue Acquiring Nuclear Energy," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 10 December 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 December 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 December 1979
    The UN General Assembly passes by a vote of 96 - 2 Pakistan's proposal to create a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. India and Bhutan vote against the resolution. During the UN General Assembly meeting, Pakistan's Ambassador Niaz A. Naik rejects a claim by the Israeli Ambassador Yehuda Z. Blum that Pakistan, Iraq, and Libya are seeking to create a nuclear axis.
    --Associated Press, 11 December 1979, 11 December 1979; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 December 1979, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late 1979
    Documentary evidence surfaces that the French company BSL has entered into a secret and illegal contract to supply Pakistan with nuclear-sensitive equipment required for the Chashma reprocessing plant. The equipment includes specially designed dissolvers, evaporators, annular vessels, and mixer-settlers. The contract specifies that BSL will train four to six Pakistani engineers at its own workshops and also help organize a special school for welders in Pakistan. The secret agreement was signed two months after the French industry ministry issued formal instructions (in February 1979) to French companies not to supply anything further for the Chashma facility. The contract also creates the fiction that equipment sold to Pakistan will be used for purposes of building a nitrating plant; it also disguises BSL's role in the transfers. All transfers are to be made to 'Asiatic Chemicals Industries' Limited in the Pakistani city of Faisalabad. Pakistan insists that all equipment must be either shipped on Pakistani freighters or on ships that skirt South Africa, Israel, and India.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), pp. 205-206.

    1979
    Pakistan's chief nuclear procurement official in France, S. A. ****, continues to approach French nuclear suppliers for potential sales of nuclear reprocessing and related equipment to Pakistan, even after France formally suspends the reprocessing plant contract with the Pakistani government. Despite the suspension, French engineers remain in Pakistan through the year to help finish with the construction of the reprocessing plant.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 200.

    1979
    Pakistani reportedly purchases 110 tons of uranium ore (yellowcake) from Niger. Libya is also believed to be diverting uranium ore purchased from Niger to Pakistan.
    --Steve Weissman & Herbert Krosney, "More Bang for a Buck," The Islamic Bomb: The Nuclear Threat to Israel and the Middle East, (New York: 1981, Times Books), p. 210.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  19. #19
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    3 January 1980
    Michel Pecquer, Director of the French Atomic Commission, denies France's involvement in the sale of Niger-mined uranium to Pakistan and Libya. Pecquer also denies reports that uranium shipments from the mines in Niger were stolen. He clarifies that the sale of uranium to Libya and Pakistan was made by the government of Niger and involved only those portions of the mines that were controlled by the Niger government. Pecquer adds that the sale of 258 tons of uranium yellow cake to Libya and 110 tons to Pakistan was in conformance with IAEA regulations. The sale of uranium to Libya and Pakistan is confirmed by a Niger government spokesperson. The two uranium mines in question are owned by the Niger government, COGEMA - a French company owned by the French Atomic Commission, and a number of other French and foreign enterprises. Pecquer indicates that each shareholder controls only a portion of the mine and has no control over the production activities of other parts of the mine controlled by other participants.
    --"France Denies Uranium Sales," Associated Press, 3 January 1980, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    12 January 1980
    The United States offers $400 million over the next two years in economic and military assistance to Pakistan in response to the threat posed by Soviet aggression in Afghanistan. The offer for the aid package is communicated to Agha Shahi, Pakistan's foreign affairs adviser. A special Congressional act, however, is required to proceed with the aid package since existing nonproliferation laws do not allow such assistance to Pakistan. During the discussions, the Pakistani delegation does not reveal any change in the policy over its uranium enrichment plant. Intelligence reports indicate that the pace of construction has slowed down owing to technical difficulties.
    --"Pakistan Offered $400 Million Aid; Carter Seeking $400 Million Aid to Pakistan," Washington Post, 15 January 1980, First Session, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 January 1980,Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    15 January 1980
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq indicates that the United States has not attached any pre-conditions for the aid offer. General Haq claims that the United States did not seek an end to Pakistan's alleged clandestine nuclear weapons program or an end to the Army's rule in Pakistan.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Warns Soviets, Afghanistan to Keep Out," Washington Post, 16 January 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    17 January 1980
    In an interview, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq asks the United States to convert the 1959 defense agreement between the United States and Pakistan into a "friendship treaty" to protect Pakistan's freedom and integrity. General Haq also terms the US offer of $400 million as "peanuts." In requesting greater assistance from the United States and the Western world, General Haq indicates that Pakistan's nuclear program and the issue of holding elections in the near future will not be discussed.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "Pakistan Seeking US Guarantees in Formal Treaty; Pakistan Asks Formal Treaty to Cement Ties with US," Washington Post, 18 January 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 January 1980
    US Congressman Wolff indicates that he has warned China of the dangers posed by Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons. According to Rep. Wolff, the Congressional delegation to China also informed the Chinese that the United States is concerned over the long-term implications of the issue, especially India's reaction to Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons.
    --"Visitors to China; US Congressmen," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6325/A1/4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 January 1980
    The president's request for resumption of economic and military assistance to Pakistan is expected to pass through the Congress without major problems. Serious concerns over Soviet policies in Afghanistan replace previous fears over Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.
    --Peter C. Stuart, "US Gets Tough Against Soviet Aggression," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 25 January 1980, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 January 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  20. #20
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    1 February 1980
    The Carter administration informs Congressional leaders of its plan to enter into a long-term military relationship with Pakistan. According to sources, the Carter administration is seeking to repeal the ban on aid to Pakistan imposed in April 1978. US administration officials also insist that efforts are continuing to prevent Pakistan from detonating a nuclear explosion.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 1 February 1980, Pg.1, Col.. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 February 1980
    In response to a question whether the United States should accept Pakistan's nuclear weapons program in return for Pakistan's acceptance of US military aid, US Presidential candidate Ronald Reagan says that he believes that the United States should not stand in the way of foreign countries developing their own nuclear weapons. Reagan says, "I just don't think it's any of our business." Later at a press conference, Reagan says that he supports US nonproliferation efforts but he also indicates his skepticism that the United States can do much to prevent the development of nuclear technology by other countries.
    --Robert Lindsey, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 1 February 1980, Pg. 1, Col.. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2-3 February 1980
    US National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski fails to elicit a definite promise from Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq to cancel a planned nuclear test in April.
    --"Sonoda to Try to Dissuade Pakistan from Nuclear Test," Jiji Press Ticker Service, 5 February 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 February 1980
    US National Security Adviser Zbigniew Brzezinski announces that the US administration has postponed sending its $400 million aid request to the Congress until the contributions by other nations are finalized. During talks with the Pakistani delegation in Islamabad, the two sides further define the 1959 defense agreement between the two countries. Under the newly agreed rules, the United States will provide aid to Pakistan in the event of a Soviet attack with more than platoon-strength troops. The United States is still concerned over Pakistan's nuclear weapons program, but the American delegation believes that the new agreements will enable both sides to address the issues in a better manner.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "US to Seek Help from Other Nations on Aid to Pakistan," Washington Post, 4 February 1980, First Section, A18; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 February 1980
    The Carter administration appears to back away from its earlier declarations that its $400 million aid offer to Pakistan is non-negotiable. Although Dr. Brzezinski states that "we are concerned, have been concerned, and will be concerned about the proliferation of nuclear weapons," a US official, in response to a specific question over the softening of US stance over Pakistan's nuclear program, states that "we will have to harmonize our goal of non-proliferation of nuclear weapons with the changes in the strategic situation in the area."
    --James Dorsey, 'Afghanistan Crisis Yields Critical Policy," Christian Science Monitor, 4 February 1980, Pg. 22; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 February 1980
    Former Japanese foreign minister Sunao Sonoda will try to persuade Pakistan not to conduct a nuclear test. Pakistan is expected to conduct a nuclear test in April. Sonoda will visit Pakistan during the middle of February as the special envoy of Prime Minister Masayoshi Ohira.
    --"Sonoda to Try to Dissuade Pakistan from Nuclear Test," Jiji Press Ticker Service, 5 February 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 February 1980
    A full-fledged computer division is established at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH). The facilities offered at the computer center are unique and the center is maintained by Pakistani engineers.
    --"Computer Applications," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 27 February 1980, Part 3. The Far East, weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Science and Technology, FE/W1071/A/23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 February 1980
    Reports indicate that Chinese nuclear experts are assisting Pakistan in its efforts to enrich uranium.
    --"Pakistan: Increasing Involvement in Alliance with USA and China," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 February 1980, Part 1. The USSR, C. Afghanistan and Related Topics, SU/6345/C/3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 February 1980
    US State Department officials state that, despite US reservations, Pakistan is continuing to build its uranium enrichment facility. The US government has warned that continuation of the plant's construction will halt further US military support. Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan does not wish to develop nuclear weapons but does not foreclose the possibility of developing a peaceful nuclear device. According to US intelligence estimates, Pakistan will not be able to produce sufficient quantities of enriched uranium for a bomb at least until late 1981.
    --Richard Burt, Information Bank Abstracts, New York Times, 28 February 1980, Pg. 1, Col. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 February 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 February 1980
    The Dutch government indicates that a security lapse at a uranium enrichment plant in the Netherlands in 1974 might have provided important information to Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, a Pakistani metallurgist, who might have used it in Pakistan's own uranium enrichment efforts. A report compiled by an interdepartmental commission of inquiry states that Dr. Khan tried to obtain classified information during his 16-day stay at the enrichment plant. The inquiry commission is not certain whether Dr. Khan was successful in his attempts to obtain information but the report states that it is possible for Pakistan to have speeded up its enrichment process based on the information obtained by Dr. Khan. The commission report states that "It can be assumed that Pakistan, through Khan, has been able to procure sensitive knowledge in the field of enrichment technology. In this way, the country has been able to achieve a considerable time-saving in the setting up of a pilot installation for the enrichment of uranium." The report indicates that lapses in the screening processes and other security procedures enabled Dr. Khan to work in the enrichment facility briefly during 1974. Dr. Khan worked for a URENCO subcontractor between 1972 and 1975. URENCO is a British-Dutch-West German Consortium for enriching uranium. The enrichment plant is operated by URENCO. The Dutch government had previously denied any leak of classified data. The report also states that Dr. Khan is now playing an important role in Pakistan's nuclear program. The inquiry report further states that certain Dutch companies are involved in exporting components that could enable Pakistan to build a centrifuge system.
    --"Pakistani May Have Obtained Classified Nuclear Data," Associated Press, 29 February 1980, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 February 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; United Press International, 11 February 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 February 1980
    The Secretary of State to the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs Olivier Stirn indicates that the French government did not categorically refuse to supply Pakistan with equipment that could be used to build a nuclear fuel facility. According to Stirn, France is also willing to provide Pakistan with 50 instead of the ordered 32 Mirage fighter aircraft. In addition, France is also willing to increase military and economic aid by 150 million francs in addition to the 250 million francs allocated for 1980.
    --"French Involvement in Military Aid to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 1 March 1980, part 1. The USSR, C. Afghanistan and Related Topics, SU/6359/C/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 March 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


Page 1 of 6 123456 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. Pakistan Navy’s ‘Nuclear’ Aspirations
    By Lord Of The Ring in forum Pakistan Strategic Forces
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: 9th July 2012, 13:28
  2. Nuclear de-hyphenation
    By Superkaif in forum Pakistan's Military Industrial Complex
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 2nd July 2012, 11:15
  3. Pakistan Navy’s ‘Nuclear’ Aspirations
    By Aryan_B in forum Pakistan Navy
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 30th June 2012, 17:53

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
Join us on twitter Follow us on twitter