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Thread: Nuclear Chronology of Pakistan

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  1. #41
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    Pakistan England
    Fourth Week of November 1982
    The U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for Nonproliferation Richard T. Kennedy meets French officials to request them to stop the sale of a nuclear reactor to Pakistan until all nuclear facilities in Pakistan are placed under international safeguards. According to an official source, the French officials respond that they see no reason to halt the sale of a reactor if Pakistan is willing to accept international safeguards on that reactor.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan Seeking 2D Atom Reactor," New York Times, 3 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 November 1982
    In an interview, Pakistan President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan's uranium enrichment effort is a "modest, humble program" aimed at using the technology for its nuclear power reactors. President Haq states that Pakistan is forced to acquire nuclear technology since Pakistan has exhausted all other available means of generating energy. President Haq further states that Pakistan does not need to import yellowcake from Niger since it possesses uranium. President Haq firmly also rejects allegations that Pakistan is developing a nuclear weapon capability. He discloses that that the uranium enrichment program is being managed by the military and claims that the enrichment project is "part and parcel of Pakistan's Atomic Energy Commission." President Haq further states that Pakistan has not accepted international safeguards owing to their discriminatory nature; and that the Kahuta facility will not be placed under safeguards since it was built through "beg, borrow, and steal" and is not "intended to be covered by international safeguards." President Haq states that Pakistan will sign the NPT provided India signs it.
    --Mary Anne Weaver, "Zia; Pakistan's Military Ruler, Before US Visit Talks about Drugs, Arms Buildup, India Elections, Afghanistan, and 'the bomb'," Christian Science Monitor, 30 November 1982, Monitor Interview, Pg. 12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1982
    The Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG), comprising the United States and other nuclear exporting countries, secretly submits a new enhanced export control list to the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Exporters Committee, also known as the Zangger Committee. The participating countries also decide to hold another Zangger committee meeting in late January 1984 to resolve the legal and technical issues regarding the new list. France and China are not part of the Zangger committee since both the nations are not signatories to the NPT. France, however, is holding bilateral meetings with the United States over the new list and promises to adhere to any new guidelines adopted in the new list. France is part of the Nuclear Suppliers Group.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "More Curbs sought on A-Materials; Nations Widening List of Exports Subject to Controls," Washington Post, 3 January 1983, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    First Week of December 1982
    U.S. and Pakistani officials settle a dispute over the equipment to be included in the F-16 fighter aircraft to be supplied to Pakistan. The U.S. State Department agrees to upgrade the avionics package in the fighter aircraft.
    --Jim Anderson, United Press International, 3 December 1982, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 - 9 December 1982
    Pakistan invites bids for the proposed 900-1,000 MW nuclear power plant and issues tenders to "over a dozen qualified suppliers." The bidders were selected based on their interest in the project which is estimated to cost about $1.5 billion. The bids have to be submitted in five months and the project is expected to begin in December 1983.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan Issues Plant Tender; Prospective Bidders not Identified," Nucleonics Week, 9 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 49, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 - 10 December 1982
    Major reactor suppliers obtain the technical specifications for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. The suppliers include Kraftwerk Union, Framatome, Westinghouse, and General Electric. The firms that picked up the specifications for the conventional part of the plant are Ansaldo, Hitachi, Toshiba, and Alsthom-Atlantique.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "The Final Stages of Work on Evaluation Procedures for Bids on Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 10 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 10, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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  2. #42
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    Pakistan England
    1 December 1982
    Pakistan begins to solicit bids for a new reactor for its proposed nuclear power plant at Chashma. The reactor's capacity is mentioned as 900 MW and companies also can bid for a second reactor to be constructed later. The formal invitation to participate in the project is also sent to U.S. companies Westinghouse Electric Co. and General Electric. Spokespersons from both firms, however, state that the firms will not be participating since the U.S. government will not provide the necessary approval. The United States has appealed to European countries to prevent the sale of the nuclear reactor until Pakistan accepts international safeguards for all of its nuclear facilities. Britain, the Netherlands, and other countries that normally require monitoring of nuclear facilities express agreement with the U.S. request. France, West Germany, and Italy do not agree with the U.S. request.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan Seeking 2D Atom Reactor," New York Times, 3 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 December 1982
    The U.S. and Pakistani officials differ over the nature of Pakistan's nuclear program. A senior Pakistani official claims that "The United States and others think we are developing nuclear weapons. We say we are not and we say your evidence is wrong." The Pakistani official says that the pattern of Pakistan's nuclear program and a threat of massive Indian nuclear retaliation make it illogical for Pakistan to pursue nuclear weapons. A U.S. official, however, states that the absence of safeguards at certain facilities raises suspicions over Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --Jim Anderson, United Press International, 3 December 1982, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 December 1982
    The Chairman of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan announces the government's decision to proceed with the 900 MW nuclear power plant project at Chashma. Khan announces that the bidders are welcome to collect the necessary documents before December 15 and says that the project will begin in about 12 months and take six years to complete. According to Khan, the civil work and infrastructure facilities at the Chashma project site have been completed. The project is estimated to cost about 17,000 million Pakistani rupees. He indicates that the final cost of the project will be based on the submitted tenders and that the Chashma nuclear plant, upon completion, will contribute to 10% of the total capacity of Pakistan's power grid which he estimates to be 11,000 MW. Khan also indicates that IAEA safeguards will be implemented at the facility. He further asserts that the location of the nuclear power plant was evaluated using stringent safety standards and states that risk of pollution is non-existent. The rationale for choosing a light water reactor (LWR) was that the technology is available from six to eight sources and hence there are less chances of an embargo like the one imposed by Canada in 1976. Furthermore, Pakistan will insist on certain conditions in the Chashma contract like manufacturing spare parts in Pakistan, mandatory supply of nuclear fuel for five years followed by a 15-year agreement for enrichment supply. Khan expresses confidence that Pakistan will be able to supply its own fuel for the Chashma plant using the fuel fabrication plant. A study by a Swedish company, Asea-Atom, concludes that Pakistan's domestic industry can contribute to the construction of the Chashma nuclear plant. Khan indicates that Pakistan will need between five to eight nuclear power stations before 2000.
    --"Energy; Nuclear Power Station," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 8 December 1982, Part 3. The Far East, Weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan, FE/W1214/A/27; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan Issues Plant Tender; Prospective Bidders not Identified," Nucleonics Week, 9 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 49, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 December 1982
    In a briefing to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Reagan administration officials indicate that Pakistan is continuing its nuclear weapons program. Administration officials inform the Foreign Relations Committee that China is assisting Pakistan to build a nuclear bomb and estimate that Pakistan is about a year away from producing fissile material that could be used to make a bomb.
    --Bernard Weinraub, "Zia tells Reagan he won't Build Atomic Weapon," New York Times, 8 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 5, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 December 1982
    According to a senior U.S. administration official, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq meets U.S. President Ronald Reagan and provides assurances that Pakistan is not interested in developing nuclear weapons.
    --Suzanne F. Green, United Press International, 7 December 1982, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of December 1982
    In an interview, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq denies the existence of the New Labs reprocessing plant and insists that "we have no reprocessing facility whatsoever. Pakistani scientists are experimenting with how to reprocess one ounce of plutonium as scientists." U.S. analysts, however, believe that the New Labs reprocessing facility is not currently reprocessing plutonium but believe the facility to possess greater capacity. U.S. analysts note that Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan has indicated to European scientists that the New Labs facility can reprocess about 6kg of plutonium. President Haq also says that the enrichment facility in Kahuta is "a humble, modest program." U.S. sources, however, insist that the Kahuta facility is built to house 10,000 ultracentrifuges. U.S. intelligence sources also point out that the reprocessing and enrichment facilities are handled by the PAEC and the procurement of equipment and construction of nuclear plants is supervised by the Pakistani military.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "India said to Eye Raid on Pakistani A-Plants," Washington Post, 20 December 1982, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 December 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq is expected to seek resumption of Canada's nuclear fuel shipments for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. President Haq will begin his Canadian visit on December 14. Canadian officials indicate that talks between President Haq and the Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau will include a request from the Pakistani president for nuclear fuel. Canadian officials, however, indicate that Canada is unlikely to accept Pakistan's request due to proliferation concerns. Canada insists on implementing full-scope safeguards as a condition for the renewal of nuclear cooperation and Canadian officials indicate that Canada is unlikely to change its nuclear policy, for the fear of nuclear proliferation, even if Pakistan accepts full-scope safeguards.
    --Andrew P. Hutton, United Press International, 10 December 1982, Regional News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 December 1982
    During his meeting with the Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq raises the issue of nuclear cooperation but does not seek any assurances on the resumption of nuclear cooperation between Canada and Pakistan.
    --Andrew P. Hutton, "Canada's Aid to Pakistan without "Strings"," United Press International, 17 December 1982, Regional News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 December 1982
    Director-General of the IAEA Hans Blix states that the existing safeguards at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor are not sufficient to ensure that diversions are not taking place at the facility. Dr. Blix says "we are not satisfied with the arrangements and we cannot ensure that the diversion is not taking place... At the same time we cannot also say for certain that they were diverting material for manufacturing weapons." The IAEA has been requesting to place an inspection seal on an access hatch that would prevent Pakistan from secretly opening the hatch and diverting nuclear material from the reactor. Pakistan has so far refused to accept the measure.
    --"IAEA Criticizes Pakistani Nuclear Safety," United Press International, 19 December 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 December 1982
    In a news conference, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that he did not ask Canada for the supply of nuclear fuel.
    --"President Zia Discusses his Canadian Visit," BC Summary of World Broadcasts, 21 December 1982, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1.General and Western Affairs, FE/7214/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    23 December 1982
    According to a well-informed source, the French government decides to allow Framatome to bid for the supply of the 900 MW Chashma nuclear reactor. The French government authorizes Framatome to accept the invitation to participate in the bidding process. The deadline for the submission of the bid was December 15. The initial French proposal is expected to only cover the reactor without any financial attachments. The French bidding consortium will be headed by Framatome and will consist of Alsthom-Atlantique and Spie-Batignolles. Certain French officials believe that the current reactor bid will serve to resolve the dispute over the reprocessing plant that France cancelled in 1978. It is not clear whether France will insist on full-scope safeguards for Pakistan as requested by the United States as a condition for the supply of a new reactor. A senior French administration official says that the denial of a nuclear reactor by the nuclear suppliers might force Pakistan to turn to Brazil or South Korea. The French official calls this situation a "worst thing." The French official also professes surprise that the United States is denying peaceful nuclear technology to Pakistan while supplying it with advanced F-16 fighter planes.
    --'Framatome can Bid on the," Nucleonics Week, 23 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 51-52, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1982
    According to U.S. intelligence sources, Indian military planners have prepared a plan to conduct pre-emptive strikes on Pakistani nuclear installations. U.S. sources indicate that the plan was presented to India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, who decided not to pursue the option for concerns over a retaliatory strike by Pakistan on India's nuclear facilities. According to U.S. sources, the completion of the New Labs reprocessing facility raised India's concerns over Pakistan's nuclear program. The military plan called for strikes on Pakistan's enrichment facility at Kahuta and the small New Labs reprocessing plant at Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH). India's Ambassador to the United States K.R. Narayanan rejects the report as a "figment of the imagination." The report is also rejected by a spokesperson for India's foreign ministry Mani Shankar Aiyer. Bilateral talks between India and Pakistan are proceeding and certain U.S. sources believe that India will not launch a preemptive during the talks.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "India said to Eye Raid on Pakistani A-Plants," Washington Post, 20 December 1982, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1982
    Pakistan appoints the Geneva-based International Energy Development Corp. as a consultant to the Pakistani government. The company is tasked with preparing a five year energy plan for Pakistan.
    --"While the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has Postponed the Deadline," Nucleonics Week, 10 November 1983, Vol. 24, No. 45, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    Early 1983
    Pakistan conducts a uranium survey of over 60,000 km and discovers significant quantities of uranium ore in the Tharparkar desert in the Sind province and between Mansehra and Thakot in the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP). The sampling of the uranium ore in the NWFP indicates ore with 0.2% uranium. Exploration in Sonmiani indicates the presence of 4 Mt of heavy minerals including uranium. Uranium bearing regions are discovered in the Eastern Potwar region, on both sides of the Indus River. The places include Isa Khel, Mir Ali Thal, Khisor Ranges, Shanwah, Karak, Taman, Mindi Shariqi, Larimar, Kakhad, Pir Fatehal, Tabbiser, Massan and Soan river area as well as the Hazara district and Rajanpur.
    --"Pakistan's Moving Plans," Mining Journal, 14 October 1983, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 October 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Early 1983
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC) invited bids for the architect-engineering component of the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASHNUPP). The deadline for the bids is April 1.
    -- Ann MacLachlan, "The Final Stages of Work on Evaluation Procedures for Bids on Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 10 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 10, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 January 1983
    Diplomatic sources indicate that the United States and the major nuclear supplier countries are developing new trigger lists of high technology equipment and materials that would produce a strong, common nonproliferation policy among nuclear supplier nations. An initial list of 26 items needed for building an ultracentrifuge plant is created and includes items like electrical inverters, scoops, and rotors. The United States is pushing to control the export of materials like ultra-high-strength aluminum and maraging steels, nickel-iron alloys of extremely high strength. The new list is under consideration by the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty Exporters Committee and a final decision is expected to be reached by late spring this year. Upon successful implementation of the list, the participant countries are expected to devise similar lists for reprocessing plants and other sensitive nuclear facilities. The new list is expected to provide a consensus on export controls and prevent nations from claiming that they did not know about the utility of their exports in assisting nuclear weapons programs. The Reagan administration has been working on this effort for about two years.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "More Curbs sought on A-Materials; Nations Widening List of Exports Subject to Controls," Washington Post, 3 January 1983, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25-28 January 1983
    Pakistan agrees to prepare a bundle counter for tests and operation, install a second camera system, and put IAEA seals on an emergency airlock. Pakistan indicates these measures to a visiting IAEA team.
    --David K. Willis, "Nuclear Proliferation: Who's Nest to get the Bomb," Christian Science Monitor, 25 February 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 January 1983
    US intelligence officials indicate that China has provided sensitive nuclear weapons design information to Pakistan. The Chinese assistance removes the need for Pakistan to conduct an early nuclear test. A nuclear test by Pakistan will lead to a cut-off in American military aid. Unlike Israel, Pakistan is not believed to possess the technical sophistication to build a nuclear arsenal without testing a nuclear device. The US Secretary of State George P. Shultz is expected to raise this issue with the Chinese during his trip to China next week. Mr. Shultz is expected to indicate that any bilateral nuclear cooperation between China and the United States will be possibly only if China provides assurances not to assist other nations' nuclear weapons programs. Reports of Chinese assistance to Pakistan emerged from the British authorities several months ago. Initially, the reports were not considered seriously by the analysts. Recently, however, a consensus has emerged over the issue. Recently US State Department officials have backed away from claims that Pakistan will be testing a nuclear device in the near future, pointing it as evidence that the US aid is working as a deterrent. Other sources point out that Pakistan's decision not to conduct a test might arise from the assistance provided by China that removes the necessity to conduct a test.
    -- Milton R. Benjamin, "China Aids Pakistan on A-Weapons," Washington Post, 28 January 1983, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 January 1983
    China denies a news report that it provided information and blueprints for a nuclear weapon to Pakistan.
    --Washington Post, 30 January 1983, First Section, World News, Around the Nation, For the Record, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 January 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    February 1983
    A US official informs a Congressional Committee that the CIA has definite proof that Pakistan and China had discussions on developing nuclear weapons.
    --Simon Henderson, 'Why Pakistan May not Need to Test a Nuclear Device," Financial Times (London), 14 August 1984, Section I, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    Second Week of February 1983
    The IAEA places a conditional seal over the opening of an emergency airlock that leads out of the containment. The airlock opening provided a possibility for diverting fuel bundles from the reactor.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "IAEA Completes its Desired Upgrading of Safeguards at KANUPP," Nucleonics Week, 3 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 9, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fourth Week of February 1983
    The Director General of the IAEA Hans Blix reports to the IAEA Board of Governors that the Agency can properly safeguard the KANUPP reactor. IAEA sources indicate that the placement of a conditional seal over an emergency airlock provides the IAEA a "high level of confidence" to verify the IAEA safeguards. The Safeguards Implementation Report (SIR) for 1982 is expected to emphasize the new development. An IAEA source points out that certain electronic equipment do not possess a backup, but indicates that existing measures are sufficient under normal circumstances. Earlier, Bundle counters were installed between the reactor and the spent fuel holding pool. An IAEA source indicates that the Agency still cannot verify the number of fuel bundles entering the reactor, since Pakistan can insert fuel from its un-safeguarded fuel fabrication plant, but indicates that the bundle counters can ensure tracking of the number of bundles leaving the reactor. The issue over the re-distribution of closed-circuit TV cameras was also resolved recently.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "IAEA Completes its Desired Upgrading of Safeguards at KANUPP," Nucleonics Week, 3 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 9, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 February 1983
    US sources indicate that Pakistan is encountering problems in its nuclear weapons program. Sources reveal that recently 5,000 "cascades" bought by Pakistan were impounded by the Swiss authorities in Zurich. Cascades are barrel-like containers that are used to enrich U-238 by separating U-238 and the fissionable U-235.
    --David K. Willis, "Nuclear Proliferation: Who's Nest to get the Bomb," Christian Science Monitor, 25 February 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 February 1983
    India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi claims that Pakistan's nuclear program is not intended for peaceful purposes. Indicating that India does not fear Pakistan's peaceful nuclear program, Prime Minister Gandhi says that "I don't think they are going to use it for peaceful purposes." Prime Minister Gandhi will be meeting Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq in 2 weeks.
    --Alain Cass and John Elliot, "India Fears Pakistan Nuclear Intentions," Financial Times (London), 25 February 1983, Section I, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 March 1983
    In response to India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's comments about Pakistan's nuclear program, the Information Minister from Pakistan's Embassy in London issues a statement that "Any suggestion from any quarter that Pakistan has plans to make nuclear weapons, overtly or covertly, is baseless."
    --"Pakistan's Nuclear Policy," Financial Times (London), 2 March 1983, Section 1, Letters to the Editor, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    First Week of March 1983
    The head of the Power Department in the Spanish architect-engineering firm Sener, Francisco Albisu, says that the evaluation procedures for bids on the Chashma nuclear power plant is in the closing stages of completion. Mr. Albisu claims that, following the discussions with the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), the bids will be finalized to meet the May 1 deadline for the submission of bids. Mr. Albisu states that the initial 600 Mw capacity for the power plant was revised to 900 Mw and claims that the bid also includes a provision to build a second 900 Mw plant that will be decided 12 months after the completion of the first unit. The first unit is expected to cost $1.5 billion. Mr. Albisu states that Sener began work for the second part of its contract following the completion of a feasibility study in June 1981. The second part involves exchange visits by technical personnel from Sener, PAEC, and Nespak, a Pakistani civil engineering firm. According to Sener, about 100 Pakistani engineers are involved in the Chashma project. According to Mr. Albisu, 12 to 25 Pakistani engineers were trained in Bilbao, Spain during the first half of 1981. Following the completion of the training, 10 Sener personnel moved to Pakistan and remained in Islamabad and 2 Sener personnel commuted between Pakistan and Spain during this period. Mr. Albisu indicates that a complimentary Sener team will join the existing team in Pakistan to assist the bid evaluation process.

    Nuclear industry sources indicate that Pakistan might extend the deadline for the bids in order to accommodate the resolution of political problems in major nuclear supplier countries. The PAEC had requested three options for the Chashma nuclear power plant: a turnkey contract for the entire plant; a multi-component contract, with separate bids for nuclear steam supply system, turbine-generator, and other major components; a two-part contract, with separate bids on the nuclear island and the conventional island. Any supplier submitting a turnkey bids is also expected to submit components bids. France's Framatome and Alsthom-Atlantiaque are preparing turnkey bids. Sources also indicate that the companies bidding for the architecture-engineering component of the nuclear plant are atomic-energy firms in Switzerland, Belgium, and Spain. The Swiss firm is identified as Motor-Columbus.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "The Final Stages of Work on Evaluation Procedures for Bids on Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 10 March 1983, Vol. 24, No. 10, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 March 1983
    Pakistan and Niger sign a bilateral agreement for creating a joint ministerial commission for trade promotion. The two sides decide to increase nuclear cooperation in the future. Pointing out Pakistan's extensive research program in nuclear medicine, agriculture and generation of electricity, Niger's President Seyni Kountche informs the newspersons that Niger is interested in training its personnel in the nuclear industry in Pakistan so that Niger can emulate Pakistan in using its own resources. The impact of the new agreements on the uranium trade between Pakistan and Niger is not clear. A Pakistani official, while pointing out that in the past Niger has provided uranium to Pakistan with IAEA's knowledge, refuses to clarify on the present status of the uranium trade between the two nations. The Pakistani official further points out that in the event of cooperation between the two countries in the field of uranium mining technology, Pakistan, with its experience in the field, will be able to assist Niger. Pakistan has recently begun to exploit its uranium reserves in Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab. Pakistan has recently begun to exploit its uranium reserves in Dera Ghazi Khan in Punjab. Pakistani engineers began work at Dera Ghazi Khan in December and Pakistani officials refuse reveal the mine's production capacity. The Pakistani government also denies the involvement of any American company in uranium exploration activities in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan and Niger Step up Nuclear Trade," Nuclear Fuel, 14 March 1983, Vol. 8, No. 6, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 March 1983
    The head of the Libyan delegation to the Non-Aligned summit in New Delhi, Abd as-Salam Jallud, denies that Libya is assisting Pakistan's efforts to produce an Islamic bomb. Mr. Jallud terms news reports describing such assistance as false propaganda against Libya.
    --"Libya Denies Reports of Nuclear Weapons Aid to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 March 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/7283/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 March 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 March 1983
    The French Foreign Minister Claude Cheysson indicates that France is discussing the possibility of supplying a $1 billion 900 Mw pressurized water reactor of Westinghouse design for the Chashma nuclear power plant. Pakistan is currently conducting negotiations with the IAEA over the plant's safeguards. Mr. Cheysson indicates that France will not supply a reactor to a country that does not implement safeguards on the supplied reactor. Mr. Cheysson, however, indicates that France will not require the same level of stringent full-scope safeguards as demanded by the United States and states that France's position on the issue of safeguards differs from the position adopted by the United States. The United States is demanding the implementation of full-scope safeguards on all Pakistani nuclear facilities as a condition for the supply of a nuclear reactor. Mr. Cheysson indicates that every country possesses equal rights to access technology and says that France will not deny nuclear technology aimed for peaceful purposes. Mr. Cheysson states that France's position regarding safeguards is in conformance with the Nuclear Supplier Group's agreements which do not require full-scope IAEA safeguards for the supply of reactors. Mr. Cheysson also discusses possible compensation for the French cancellation of a contract to build a reprocessing plant. Pakistan has large debts and is expected to face difficulties in financing the Chashma project.
    --"Around the World; France and Pakistan Discuss Nuclear Deal," 30 March 1983, Section A, Pg. 7, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 March 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Alain Cass, "France set to Sell N-Plant to Pakistan," Financial Times (London), 30 March 1983, Section I, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 March 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Laurent Belsie (Editor), "France may Supply Pakistani A-Plant," Christian Science Monitor, 30 March 1983, The News Briefly, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 March 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Preliminary Program; Nuclear News Briefs, Pg. 25A," Nuclear News, April 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, April 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "US Officials are Privately Furious over French Foreign Minister," Nucleonics Week, 7 April 1983, Vol. 24, No. 14, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    7 April 1983
    US officials are reported to be privately angry with the French Foreign Minister's statement regarding the supply of a nuclear reactor to Pakistan. US officials indicate that Mr. Cheysson's statement will be a setback for UN nonproliferation efforts and US-French relations. US officials also add that the French position over the project is objectionable owing to the doubts regarding the finances and for the project and its implementation. The officials also point out that, for the same doubtful financial reasons, Mr. Cheysson might have made the statement believing that the project is unlikely to succeed and hence France will not have aided proliferation, while at the same time signaling its commitment to provide nuclear technology to other countries.
    --"US Officials are Privately Furious over French Foreign Minister," Nucleonics Week, 7 April 1983, Vol. 24, No. 14, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 April 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 May 1983
    In a joint communiqué issued by King Birendra of Nepal and Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq on the conclusion of a 4-day state visit by President Haq, the two leaders pledge their support to the declaration of Indian Ocean as a zone of peace and creating a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia and other regions.
    --"Nepal, Pakistan Issue Joint Communiqué," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 27 May 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 May 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 June 1983
    A new export control list for centrifuge enrichment equipment is under review by members of the 21 nation Zangger Committee and the list is expected to come into effect this fall. The new list is more comprehensive than the existing list and contains detailed descriptions of items used in centrifuge plants and includes specifications and threshold performance standards set from a nonproliferation standpoint. The current list contains only 7 items involved in various enrichment processes. The new list contains information on the materials needed to manufacture gas centrifuge assemblies. The new list also contains describes items like feed autoclaves and desublimers that are respectively used in feeding and extracting Uranium-hexafluoride (UF6) gas in and out of the centrifuges. Information on pressure and throughput specifications is also included in the new list. The original list did not contain detailed descriptions of items and materials used in a centrifuge system due to proliferation concerns. Officials indicate that Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear technology from Switzerland in 1979 led to the efforts to strengthen existing current export control lists. The items that were exported form Switzerland were not prohibited under existing export control regulations and the Swiss government called for an expanded list of export control items to prevent future nuclear commerce in sensitive items. A smaller list of export control items for reprocessing plants is expected to be completed by the end of this year. Other ideas in the pipeline are to create working groups for heavy water production and other advanced fuel cycle technologies.
    --"Agreement Nearing on more Comprehensive Trigger List Covering Centrifuge," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 24, No. 23, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    13 June 1983
    A seismic monitoring station at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center near Bangalore records a seismic event at 8 am IST in Southwestern Pakistan. The seismic event is believed to be an earthquake.
    --S.G. Roy, "India Investigates Reported Nuclear Test," United Press International, 25 June 1983, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Pakistan Adamantly Rejects Accusation it Tested Bomb," Washington Post, 26 June 1983, First Section, World News, A24; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 June 1983
    Pakistan's budget for 1983-84 allocates $30 million for the Chashma nuclear power project. The project is estimated to cost $1.3 billion and the deadline for the bids is the end of July. The nuclear plant is expected to be commissioned in 1990. The budget document, for the first time, does not provide information on allocations for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) projects, even though $28 million is believed to have been spent on a reprocessing plant during 1982-83.
    --"Pakistan's Budget for 1983-84 Earmarks $30 million for the Chashma," Nucleonics Week, 16 June 1983, Vol. 24, No. 24, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 June 1983
    India investigates whether the source for the seismic activity recorded on June 13 at the Bhabha Atomic Research Center is in fact a secret underground nuclear blast. The Indian government states that the epicenter of the seismic event was south of Quetta in the Ras Koh Mountain range. An Indian foreign ministry spokesperson, Mani Shankar Aiyer, comments "it could be or may not be" an atomic test. The spokesperson adds that the issue is being discussed with Pakistan. The report about the nuclear explosion was carried in a news report in a pro-Soviet newspaper, The Patriot, which reported that "Pakistan has exploded a nuclear device in the range of 20 to 50 kilotons on June 13 in the mountain ranges near Quetta." A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson terms the news report as "totally false and baseless." New Delhi's Meteorological Office Seismology Director S.K. Nag confirms the observation of a seismic event but indicates that available data does not provide sufficient information to point to a nuclear explosion. Mr. Nag indicates that the event is recorded as a natural earthquake. Western diplomatic sources indicate that they have no indication of a nuclear explosion in Pakistan and point out that The Patriot has previously engaged in spreading disinformation on several occasions.
    --S.G. Roy, "India Investigates Reported Nuclear Test," United Press International, 25 June 1983, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Pakistan Adamantly Rejects Accusation it Tested Bomb," Washington Post, 26 June 1983, First Section, World News, A24; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 June 1983
    Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) sources indicate that Pakistan is planning to raise money for the Chashma nuclear power plant by selling special "light up Pakistan" bonds to overseas Pakistanis in the Middle East. According to PAEC sources, the bonds might be used to finance the foreign exchange components for the project. Over 2 million overseas Pakistanis are believed to remit $3 billion to Pakistan every year.
    --"Pakistan hopes to Raise Several Hundred Million Dollars for the Chashma," Nucleonics Week, 30 June 1983, Vol. 24, No. 26, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 June 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 July 1983
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan has taken necessary measures to protect its nuclear installations after receiving information of a planned attack on the installations. President Haq indicates that his government seriously considered the January report in the British newspaper The Observer that mentioned a planned attack on Pakistan's nuclear installations by India and Israel. President Haq indicates that the safety measures were initiated based other sources apart from the report in the British newspaper. President Haq says "There has been categorical information there were countries who were suspicious, very apprehensive of Pakistan's nuclear program and has thought of taking an action similar to one Israel took in Iraq." President Haq adds that India is not involved.
    --"Shultz sees Little Hope of Lebanon Breakthrough," New York Times, 4 July 1983, Section 1, Pg. 3, Col. 2, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 July 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 July 1983
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq rejects news reports about Pakistan's testing of a nuclear device as a total lie and states that Pakistan will not conduct such a test, even for peaceful purposes.
    --Japan Economic Newswire (Tokyo), 5 July 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 July 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    8 July 1983
    Speaking at a news conference in Islamabad, Canada's Deputy Prime Minister and Secretary of State for External Affairs Allan MacEachean says that Canada and Pakistan discussed the issue of bilateral nuclear cooperation but were not able to reach a conclusion. Mr. MacEachean states that Canada will not resume nuclear cooperation with Pakistan until Pakistan signs the NPT or accepts full-scope safeguards.
    --"Canadian Foreign Secretary in Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 July 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7383/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 July 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 August 1983
    Pakistan delays the submission date of bids for the Chashma plant from 31st July to 30th September. Earlier Pakistan had postponed the submission date from 30th April to 31st July. Pakistan is facing financial difficulties in funding the project. Also, France and Germany have not given the political green signal to the French and German firms to proceed with the project.
    --"Bids for the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Project of Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 4 August 1983, Vol. 24, No. 3, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 August 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 October 1983
    A Pakistani named Nazir Ahmed Vaid contacts EG&G Electro-Optics of Salem, Massachusetts to buy 50 krytrons. EG&G Electro-Optics is a subsidiary of EG&G Inc, a large high-technology company based in Wellesley, Massachusetts. Mr. Vaid indicates his interest in the KN-22 model krytrons, costing $80 each, and can be used in nuclear weapons triggers. Mr. Vaid is asked to call again and speak to EG&G's customer manager John McClafferty.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 October 1983
    Nazir Ahmed Vaid calls EG&G and sets up a meeting with John McClafferty. During the meeting Mr. Vaid offers to pay amounts higher than the market price for the krytrons. Mr. Vaid's request is rejected owing to lack of documents necessary for export of sensitive technology. The firm EG&G also informs the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the US Customs Service Agents in Boston over Mr. Vaid's request. But Mr. Vaid leaves Boston before any action could be taken against him.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    31 October 1984
    Nazir Ahmed Vaid visits a Houston electronics company Electrotex and places an order for 50 KN-22 krytrons and places a deposit of $1,000 for the order.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 November 1983
    Pakistan's Planning Minister Mahboob ul-Haq informs the Pakistani parliament that electricity from nuclear energy can be produced at half the cost of electricity produced from other sources. The Planning Minister declares that Pakistan will complete the Chashma nuclear project and will never submit to "nuclear colonization." The Planning Minister recently received a Cost and Economic study of the Chashma nuclear plant conducted by the Geneva-based International Energy Development Corp.
    --"While the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has Postponed the Deadline," Nucleonics Week, 10 November 1983, Vol. 24, No. 45, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 November 1983
    Pakistan postpones the submission date for the Chashma nuclear power project bids to December 31st. Pakistani officials do not provide any reasons for the delay, but informed sources indicate that the delay is caused by financial difficulties.
    --"While the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission has Postponed the Deadline," Nucleonics Week, 10 November 1983, Vol. 24, No. 45, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 November 1983
    A Dutch court in Amsterdam sentences Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan in absentia for stealing nuclear secrets during his period of employment the URENCO facility in The Netherlands. Dr. Kahn earlier ignored the legal summons issued for him to return to the Netherlands and stand trial. The summons was issued through the Dutch Ambassador in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistani Sentenced for Stealing Nuclear Secrets," Associated Press, 14 November 1983, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 November 1983
    West Germany's ambassador to Pakistan Klaus Terfloth states that West Germany will supply nuclear power plants to Pakistan on the condition that Pakistan provides assurances over their peaceful application. West German officials in Bonn also confirm the statement as the official position. According to sources, Pakistan will also send e a purchasing delegation t Western Europe in the next few days. Originally, the delegation was expected to visit only France.
    --"Other Reports; FRG Willing to Supply Pakistan with Nuclear Power Plants," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 28 November 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7502/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 November 1983
    According to a Pakistani newspaper report, Pakistan's Ministry of Law is working on a draft to appeal against the ruling of the Dutch court convicting Abdul Qadeer Khan of stealing secret blueprints relating to the uranium enrichment process. The Dutch court sentenced Dr. Khan in absentia to a 4 year prison sentence.
    --"Pakistan to Appeal against Scientist's Conviction," Japan Economic Newswire, 30 November 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 December 1983
    7 developed nations including Japan, Canada, West Germany, France, Italy, Britain, and the United States meet in Rome to conclude a new agreement to prohibit products related to nuclear weapons to specific countries. The countries likely to be included in the list are Pakistan, India, Brazil, Argentina, Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Libya. The prohibited products long-range bombers and rockets, and possibly computers and other high-technology equipment.
    --"7 Nations to Ban Nuke-Related Product Sale to Developing Countries," Jiji Press Ticker Service, 1 December 1983; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 December 1983
    According to Pakistan's Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub Khan, the Islamic Foreign Ministers' Conference accepts a resolution proposed by Pakistan to create a nuclear-free zone in Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia.
    --"Pakistan Foreign Minister Hails Success of Conference," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 December 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, Islamic Foreign Ministers Conference in Dhaka, FE/7514/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Third Week of December 1983
    Pakistan's Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan signs an agreement with the Soviet Union for the supply of a conventional power plant. Mr. Khan also requests Soviet assistance in the construction of the 937 Mw Chashma nuclear power plant.
    --"Pakistan has Asked the Soviet Union to Help in the Construction," Nucleonics Week, 22 December 1983, Vol. 24, No. 51, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 December 1983
    The United Nations General Assembly adopts Pakistan's resolution for the establishment of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. India opposes the resolution citing that such a measure will not provide security to India.
    --"India Opposes UNGA Call for Nuclear-Free South Asia," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 17 December 1983, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7519/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    20 December 1983
    The Soviet Union indicates that it will consider participating in the $1.7 billion nuclear power plant project at Chashma. The Soviet Union also indicates its willingness to participate in a thermal power project and the construction of a multi-purpose dam project. The new initiatives are announced by the Soviet Union as part of a program to expand trade and economic ties between the two nations.
    --Mohamed Aftab, "Moscow may Build Major Pakistan Power Projects," Financial Times (London), 21 December 1983, Section 1, World Trade News, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 December 1983
    Pakistan's Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan announces that Pakistan has requested Soviet assistance for the construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant. Mr. Khan states that the Soviet Union will examine the project and provide a response. Mr. Khan also states that Pakistan has approached the Soviet Union for the first time regarding the Chashma project.
    --"Pakistan has Asked the Soviet Union to Help in the Construction," Nucleonics Week, 22 December 1983, Vol. 24, No. 51, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    5 January 1984
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) postpones the deadline, for the fifth time, to submit bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. The previous deadline of December 31st is extended till March 31st. Industry sources however, indicate that it is less likely for Western nuclear suppliers will submit bids owing to Pakistan's refusal to implement full-scope safeguards on its nuclear facilities.
    --"The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission ha Again Postponed the Deadline for Bids," Nucleonics Week, 5 January 1984, Vol. 25, No. 1, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 January 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 January 1984
    Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang assures that China will not assist other nations in developing nuclear weapons. During a White House banquet, Premier Ziyang, assures that "We [China] do not advocate or encourage nuclear proliferation, nor will we ourselves practice nuclear proliferation or help other countries to develop nuclear arms."
    --Michael Ross, United Press International, 12 January 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 January 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 January 1984
    Pakistan renames the Kahuta nuclear facility as Abdul Qadeer Khan Research Laboratory in recognition of Dr. A.Q. Khan's contribution to Pakistan's nuclear program. Dr. Khan, in an interview with the magazine Qaumi Digest, states that he has achieved for Pakistan within 7 with minimum expenditure what countries like West Germany, Britain, and Holland took 20 years to complete at a cost of almost $2 billion. According to the magazine, Dr. Khan is allowed to recruit personnel to work at the Kahuta project. The magazine also states that two Major-Generals Akbar Khan and Anis Nawab are working for Dr. Khan.
    --"Pakistan Names Kahuta Facility for Khan," Nuclear Fuel, 16 January 1984, Vol. 9, No. 2, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 January 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 February 1984
    Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan, in an interview with a Pakistani newspaper Nawa-i-Waqt, states that Pakistan has attained the capacity to enrich uranium. Dr. Khan states that "Pakistan has broken the Western countries' monopoly on the enrichment of uranium ... Pakistan is now among the few countries in the world that can efficiently enrich uranium." Insisting the peaceful nature of Pakistan's nuclear program, Dr. Khan also states that Pakistani scientists "would not disappoint the nation" if they are given an "important mission." Dr. Khan also indicates that Pakistan has gained a lead over India in uranium enrichment technology. Dr. Khan also mentions that uranium reserves in Pakistan are sufficient to meet the requirements for the Kahuta facility. Dr. Khan indicates that the Kahuta facility operates independently and thanks Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq and Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan for their support for the program.
    --"Pakistani Cites Nuclear Advance," New York Times, 10 February 1984, Section A, Pg. 4, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 February 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Press Interview with Pakistan Nuclear Scientist Abdul Qadeer Khan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 February 1984, Part 3. The Far East, C. Pakistan's Nuclear Programme, FE/7568/C/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 February 1984
    In an interview with a newspaper, Jang, Dr. A.Q. Khan suggests that if all tests for the components of a nuclear device are conducted, then, a nuclear test is not necessary to attain nuclear capability.
    --"Zia Chastises Western media for Accounts of Khan's Remarks on Weapons Capability," Nuclear Fuel, 27 February 1984, Vol. 9, No. 5, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    13 February 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan does not have a plan to build an atomic device and indicates that Pakistan will not build a bomb in the future. President Haq's statement, however, does not contradict a statement by Dr. A.Q. Khan that Pakistan can build a bomb if needed.
    --"Zia denies Pakistan Building Atom Bomb," Japan Economic Newswire, 14 February 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 February 1984
    Pakistan's official news agency APP reports that the statement by Dr. A.Q. Khan suggesting Pakistan's ability to enrich uranium and also produce an atomic bomb has been deliberately misinterpreted. According to APP, Dr. Khan later issued a statement indicating that Pakistan possesses "a very limited research and development program solely for peaceful uses."
    --"Pakistani Nuclear Program," Washington Post, 14 February 1984, First Section, Around the World, A16; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Zia Chastises Western media for Accounts of Khan's Remarks on Weapons Capability," Nuclear Fuel, 27 February 1984, Vol. 9, No. 5, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 February 1984
    The US Senate passes an amendment to the foreign aid bill to block the sale of nuclear components, materials or technology to countries that have not implemented full-scope safeguards stipulated under the NPT. The amendment is proposed by Senator Gordon J. Humphrey (R-NM) and Senator William V. Roth Jr. (R-DE). The amendment is passed by voice vote. The countries affected by the amendment are Pakistan, India, Israel, Argentina, Brazil, and South Africa.
    --Clyde H. Farnsworth, "Senate Votes to Restrict Nuclear Exports," New York Times, 29 February 1984, Section D, Pg. 16, Col. 1, Financial Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 February 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 February - 3 March 1984
    At a dinner for the visiting Director General of the IAEA, Hans Blix, PAEC Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan says that Pakistan cannot afford to be involved in a nuclear weapons race. Dr. Khan also states that nonproliferation policies must be fair to both developed and developing countries. Dr. Blix also meets with President Zia ul-Haq and Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub and discusses about future nuclear power projects in Pakistan.
    --"Pakistan cannot Afford to Engage in the Nuclear Weapons Race," Nucleonics Week, 8 March 1984, Vol. 25, No. 10, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 March 1984
    The Director General of the IAEA, Hans Blix, states that Pakistan possesses the necessary organizational capacity and technical knowledge to manage large projects on the peaceful uses of nuclear energy. Dr. Blix indicates that Pakistan possesses the necessary manpower and safeguards mechanisms to undertake projects to explore the peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
    --"Pakistan Capable of Developing Nuclear Energy, says IAEA," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 4 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    7 March 1984
    At a civic reception held in Lahore, the Chinese President Li Xiannian states that China endorses the proposal for the creation of an Indian Ocean peace zone and for the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Lahore Civic Reception in Honor of Chinese President," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 7 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 March 1983
    Salim Ahmed Mohamedy, a Pakistani and an accomplice of Nazir Ahmed Vaid, issues a check to Electrotex to settle the balance amount for the 50 KN-22 krytrons ordered by Mr. Vaid.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 March 1984
    The Belgian firm Belgionucleaire waits approval from the Belgian government to resume operations on a fuel cycle laboratory project at the PINSTECH facility in Rawalpindi. The work is halted owing to pressure from the US government. Some sources are optimistic that the approval will be provided by the end of this year whereas other sources are skeptical that the United States will provide its consent for the project during its election year. The resumption of nuclear cooperation is linked to Pakistan's acceptance of full-scope safeguards on all its nuclear facilities. Recent Pakistani press reports indicate that Belgionucleaire has sold a laboratory-scale reprocessing unit to PAEC. The reprocessing unit, according to the press reports, has not made any "hot runs." Sources, however, indicate that Belgionucleaire is not involved in the reprocessing unit and that the firm's contract involves only the supply of other parts of the nuclear fuel-cycle such as the fuel-cutting station, and plutonium and uranium preparation stations. Earlier in 1972, Belgionucleaire won the contract for the supply for a complete fuel-cycle reprocessing laboratory. However, the contract for the reprocessing unit was given to the French firm SGN as a condition for the supply of an industrial-scale reprocessing unit at Chashma. The French firm, later, withdrew from the contract in 1977. According to a source, Belgionucleaire maintains that its contract is still valid and is awaiting permission from the Belgian government to proceed with the partially-completed second phase of the project. The firm has already completed the first part of the contract that involved a detailed study of the fuel cycle complex. The firm has also completed the evaluation of bids received for equipment and services, which constitutes a portion of the second part of the contract. The third phase involves assistance in the construction of the laboratory. The PAEC has earlier attempted to complete the fuel cycle laboratory indigenously without success. A Belgionucleaire technical taskforce concluded in early 1983 that the facility cannot be completed by Pakistan since Pakistan does not have the necessary equipment like specialized electric cabling and also does not possess the necessary organizational workforce. Further, according to sources, PAEC Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan has declared that the laboratory will not be operated until all safety concerns are met. According to a source, Pakistan would need 3 or 4 experts from Belgionucleaire to ensure complete safety of the laboratory. The source denies any knowledge over the operational capability of the reprocessing unit that was contracted to SGN. SGN is believed to have supplied the necessary blueprints for the reprocessing unit.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "Belgians Awaiting Government Approval to Complete Pakistani Reprocessing Lab," Nuclear Fuel, Vol. 9, No. 7, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 March 1984
    An Associated Press report quotes a statement by the Indian Foreign Secretary that "Pakistan has manufactured an atomic bomb and China may have helped it to explode its first underground nuclear device." The Foreign Secretary's statement also indicates that Pakistan's Foreign Minister attended a 2-day meeting with nuclear experts at the nuclear testing site in China.
    --"Pakistan has no Atomic Bomb, says Pakistani Foreign Office Spokesman," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 28 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 March 1984
    India's Ministry of External Affairs rejects a news report quoting remarks by the Indian Foreign Secretary. A foreign ministry spokesperson Salman Haider states that "the Foreign Secretary categorically denies the remarks attributed to him."
    --"Indian Foreign Ministry Denies Statement on Pakistani A-Bomb," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 29 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 March 1984
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson refutes the statement made by the Indian Foreign Secretary alleging that Pakistan has conducted a nuclear test with Chinese assistance. The spokesperson also rejects that the Pakistan's Foreign Minister visited China to attend a meeting of nuclear experts.
    --"Pakistan has no Atomic Bomb, says Pakistani Foreign Office Spokesman," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 28 March 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    28 March 1984
    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee adopts an amendment to the Foreign Aid Bill that requires a halt any assistance to Pakistan unless the US President certifies that Pakistan "does not possess a nuclear explosive device, and is not acquiring, overtly or covertly, technology, material, or equipment for the purpose of manufacturing or detonating a nuclear explosive device." The amendment is proposed by Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) and co-sponsored by Senator John Glenn (D-OH). The amendment is adopted by a voice vote The Under Secretary of State for Security Assistance William Schneider says the amendment will undermine US efforts to convince Pakistan to accept nuclear non-proliferation agreements. Sen. Cranston and Sen. Glenn, however, argue that existing US efforts are inadequate to force Pakistan to accept non-proliferation standards.
    --W. Dale Nelson, "Committee Overrides Administration Objections," Associated Press, 28 March 1984, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 March 1984
    Niger's Minister for Education and Scientific Research Illa Maikassoua announces that Niger will send its scientists to Pakistan for training to operate a radio-isotope center. A nuclear cooperation agreement was signed between Niger and Pakistan in March 1983 during the visit of Niger's Prime Minister to Pakistan.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan will Help Malaysia in the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Nucleonics Week, 5 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 14, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 April 1984
    The Reagan administration is considering dropping its efforts to pass the foreign aid bill. Administrations sources indicate that the amendments proposed to the foreign aid bill restrict the utility of the bill. Regarding Pakistan, administration sources indicate that it might not be possible to certify that Pakistan is not developing a nuclear device because of reports over its attempts to attain such a capability. An amendment proposed by Sen. Cranston (D-CA) and Sen. Glenn (D-OH) requires the US President to certify that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear device as a condition for transferring aid to Pakistan.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Administration may Abandon Effort to Enact Foreign Aid Bill," Washington Post, 3 April 1984, First Section, A6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 April 1984
    Malaysia's Prime Minister Mahathir Mohammad announces that Pakistan and Malaysia have agreed to cooperate in the nuclear field for the peaceful use of nuclear energy. The Malaysian Prime Minister does not provide specific details of the proposed cooperation and states that Pakistan has agreed to train Malaysian scientists in Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Pakistan is also expected to assist Malaysia in setting-up a nuclear research center. A joint-communiqué issued at the end of Prime Minister Mohammad's visit to Pakistan does not include the agreement on nuclear cooperation. The communiqué mentions the two countries' support for the establishment of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia and Southeast Asia.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan will Help Malaysia in the Peaceful Use of Nuclear Energy," Nucleonics Week, 5 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 14, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 April 1984
    According to a source at the PAEC, Pakistan indefinitely postpones the submission date for bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. Discussions are expected to be held with the supplier countries and no new deadline is announced.
    --"Pakistan has Indefinitely Postponed," Nucleonics Week, 5 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 14, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 April 1984
    Pakistan's Production Minister Lt. Gen. Saeed Qadir indicates that the government is seeking Soviet assistance for the nuclear power plant project at Chashma. The move is made following the failure of Western suppliers to submit bids for the project.
    --"Pakistani Leader says he won't Run for President," Christian Science Monitor, 11 April 1984, News in Brief, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 April 1984
    The US Senate Foreign Relations Committee reverses an amendment passed on 28 March that required a Presidential certification that Pakistan does not possess a nuclear device as a precondition for aid to Pakistan. By a vote of 9-8, the Committee reverses the earlier amendment that was passed by a voice vote. The amendment was sponsored by Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) and co-sponsored by Senator John Glenn (D-OH). According to sources, the reversal occurred after the US administration convinced some senators that a cut-off of aid due to the amendment might cause Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons for its security.
    --"The Senate Foreign Relations Committee has Reversed a Decision to Block," Nucleonics Week, 12 April 1984, Vol. 25, No. 15, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 April 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 May 1984
    US administration officials indicate that China is adopting a different strategy towards nuclear proliferation after the conclusion of a nuclear cooperation agreement with the United States. The nuclear cooperation agreement was reached during President Reagan's trip to China. US officials indicate that Chinese officials have pledged not to assist other countries in developing nuclear weapons.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "China's Signing of Atom Pact seen as a Major Policy Change," New York Times, 3 May 1984, Section A, Pg. 8, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 May 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 May 1984
    A Senate report submitted to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee recommends the Congress to require Pakistan to halt all efforts to acquire nuclear weapons as a pre-condition for sanctioning further US aid. The report is prepared by Peter W. Galbraith who is a member of the Committee's minority staff. The report concludes that US-Pakistan relations are "fragile" and relations between the two countries could be damaged, not necessarily by differences over nuclear policies. Mr. Galbraith, in his report, states that Pakistan might not respond negatively if further restrictions are added for the transfer of America aid. Mr. Galbraith recommends enacting legislation that would require Pakistan to cease its efforts to acquire nuclear weapons technology or open its nuclear facilities for IAEA inspections. Mr. Galbraith suggests that the United States should use the leverage, gained through the aid program, to promote non-proliferation, human rights, and narcotics control in Pakistan.
    --Daniel Southerland, "Senate Report says that Pakistan Still Working on A-Bomb," Christian Science, 4 May 1984, National, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 May 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of June 1984
    The US Ambassador to China Arthur W. Hummel Jr. is asked to meet Chinese officials to seek clarifications regarding China's pledge to prevent the proliferation of nuclear weapons. Mr. Hummel is instructed to seek information and not to accuse China of proliferation.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Pakistan Tie Imperils US-China Nuclear Pact," New York Times, 22 June 1984, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    11-15 June 1984
    The Congressional approval for the nuclear cooperation agreement between China and the United States is unlikely to be passed by the Congress. The current problem for the passage of the nuclear agreement is due to the additional assurances sought by US officials from China over its nuclear transfers. Chinese officials refuse to provide any additional assurances, arguing that the necessary assurances were provided during President Reagan's trip to China in April. The additional assurances are sought after US intelligence information indicates that China assisted Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. According to an official, China is believed to be supplying nuclear fuel and nuclear technology to Pakistan and other countries. The Chinese aid is believed to have continued even after Chinese Premier Zhao Ziyang promised in January not to assist other countries in developing nuclear weapons. It is not known whether the request for additional assurances is made following new intelligence information. Some sources indicate that the intelligence agencies possessed the information for quite some time, rather, the information is being scrutinized only now in preparation for the Congressional approval of the nuclear deal. The visiting Chinese Defense Minister Zhang Aiping is believed to have expressed extreme displeasure over the request for additional assurances. Mr. Aiping says that he will verify the reports upon his return and respond. A senior official, however, denies that the United States is seeking additional assurances from China. China and the United States signed a nuclear cooperation agreement on April 30 during President Reagan's trip to China.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Arms Sales Snags Pact with China; US seeks Promise on Proliferation for Nuclear Deal," Washington Post, 15 June 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 June 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; United Press International, 15 June 1984, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 June 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Richard Halloran, "US-China Nuclear Pact hits Snags," New York Times, 16 June 1984, Section 1, Pg. 5, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 June 1984
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) announces that "Pakistan has now acquired all the capability necessary to produce nuclear weapons." Sen. Cranston plans to make the revelation on the Senate floor tomorrow. The Senator indicates that he received the information from a recently declassified study conducted by a team of more than 90 experts for the Defense Nuclear Agency. Sen. Cranston accuses the US State department and the Reagan administration of withholding information from the Congress over the issue. The State Department does not comment on Sen. Cranston's remarks. But, privately, officials indicate that China's past nuclear assistance to Pakistan was known for quite sometime. US officials also reveal that the United States had conducted serious discussions with Pakistan not to detonate a nuclear device.
    --"Cranston Says Pakistan can make A-Bomb," New York Times, 21 June 1984, Section A, Pg. 14, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 June 1984
    US Congressional sources and Reagan administration officials indicate that China might be continuing its assistance to Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Officials indicate that China might be assisting Pakistan in the development of centrifuges for enriching uranium. Many administration officials urge caution, suggesting that evidence of continuing Chinese assistance is far from conclusive. Some officials believe that China might gain from Pakistan's nuclear program since Pakistan has been involved in pilfering advanced western nuclear technology for the past few years. The officials indicate that "some evidence" reveals that, in 1983, China provided Pakistan with a bomb design based on the fourth type of bomb tested by China. Certain other officials believe the evidence to be speculative, but, nevertheless concede that China assisted Pakistan's nuclear weapons program until last year.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Pakistan Tie Imperils US-China Nuclear Pact," New York Times, 22 June 1984, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 June 1984
    China informs the United States that it will not provide additional assurances apart from those already provided. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian Affairs William A. Brown briefs legislative aides on the issue and tells that certain activities are continuing between Pakistan and China. According to Mr. Brown, both the nations are being questioned over the issue through diplomatic channels. According to sources, Mr. Brown indicates that information regarding the exact nature of Chinese assistance to Pakistan is not conclusive. Sources also indicate that in 1983 China transferred design for the fourth device detonated by China and not the design for the fourth nuclear device built by China.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Peking said to Balk at Nuclear Pledges," New York Times, 23 June 1984, Section 1, Pg. 3, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 June 1984
    Salim Ahmed Mohamedy and another Pakistani Ilyas Ahmed Mohamedy contact a Houston freight forwarding agent AEI to pick up a package for export to Pakistan. The package is labeled as "printed materials and office supplies" and AEI delivers the package to Houston Intercontinental Airport. The package is seized by US Customs agents upon arrival at the airport. US Customs officers arrest Nazir Ahmed Vaid for attempting to export 50 krytrons out of the United States. Krytrons are high-speed switches that can be used as triggers for nuclear weapons and can also be used for other applications like lasers. Mr. Vaid paid $4,000 for the krytrons.
    --United Press International, 29 June 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 June 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Pakistanis Accused of Moving Nuke Parts," United Press International, 17 July 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 July 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 June 1984
    US sources indicate that Pakistan and China might be cooperating in developing each other's nuclear weapons program. According to sources, China is assisting Pakistan in resolving engineering problems in building centrifuges for uranium enrichment. In return, Pakistan might be providing advanced centrifuge designs for uranium enrichment. China uses gaseous diffusion process for enriching uranium.
    --Michael Knapik, "White House Finds Questions but "No Smoking Gun" on China Agreement," Nucleonics Week, 28 June 1984, Vol. 25, No. 26, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 June 1984
    US Magistrate Calvin Botley orders Nazir Ahmed Vaid to remain in custody and sets a bond for $200,000 and refuses to lower the amount. Justice Botley says Mr. Vaid should pay the entire amount instead of the usual 10% in order to be released on bail. Mr. Vaid is charged with providing false customs declaration and conspiring to violate US Neutrality Act. US Attorney argues that Vaid is a Pakistani agent and says "we strongly suspect Mr. Vaid is acting at the instructions of the Pakistani government and that the purchase of the krytrons was for Pakistani use in obtaining a nuclear weapon." According to information provided by Customs agent Justice McCalley, Mr. Vaid first attempted to procure Krytrons directly from E.G. & G Electro-Optics, the only firm in the United States that manufactures krytrons. The firm refuses to sell the krytrons to Mr. Vaid when he indicates the final destination to be Pakistan. Mr. Vaid was asked to obtain US State Department authorization for the purchase. Later, the firm E.G. & G received an order for 50 krytrons from a electronics company in Houston and the firm informed the Customs agency regarding the new purchase order.
    --United Press International, 29 June 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 June 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    5 July 1984
    Pakistan's allocates $35 million for PAEC projects, including $10 million for the Chashma nuclear power project, in its budget for the year 1984-85. Pakistan's Planning Minister Mahboob-ul-Haq indicates a lack of progress in the construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant since no major supplier has submitted bids for the project. Other budget allocations include $13 million for a classified re-processing plant, $4.5 million for a nuclear mineral survey, and $1.5 million for an on-going uranium exploration project in Dera Ghazi Khan.
    --Shahid0ur-Rehman, "Pakistan's Budget for 1984-85 Provides $35 million," Nucleonics Week, 5 July 1984, Vol. 25, No. 27, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 - 13 July 1984
    11 Western suppliers of nuclear technology meet in Luxemburg to strengthen nuclear export control regulations. One of the important issues that forced the group to convene is Pakistan's efforts to acquire nuclear weapons. The Luxemburg meeting represents the first meeting, since 1977, for most of the members of the 15-member of the London Suppliers Club.
    --Leslie H. Gelb, "Nuclear Nations Agree to Tighten Export Controls," New York Times, 16 July 1984, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 July 1984
    A federal grand jury indicts three Pakistani nationals Nazir Ahmed Vaid, Salim Ahmed Mohamedy, and Ilyas Ahmed Mohamedy on charges of providing false statements to US Customs officials, violating US export laws governing munitions, and conspiracy. Mr. Vaid is in custody with a bond amount of $200,000. The other two charged persons are arrested and the bond amount for bail is set at $100,000. US Assistant Attorney Sam Longoria and Defense Attorney William Burge refuse to comment on the case citing a gag order issued by the judge.
    --"Pakistanis Accused of Moving Nuke Parts," United Press International, 17 July 1984, Domestic News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 July 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 July 1984
    Reagan administration officials state that China's assistance to Pakistan's nuclear weapons program is a major road-block in consummating the nuclear cooperation agreement signed between China and the United States during President Reagan's China trip in April. US officials express serious concern over the presence of Chinese officials at the Kahuta enrichment facility and indicate that the situation is being closely observed. US officials believe that China and Pakistan are engaged in a mutual agreement wherein China will assist Pakistan in overcoming the technical hurdles for building uranium enrichment centrifuges and in return China might get access to the advanced centrifuge designs stolen by Pakistan. Other reports also suggest that China transferred a quantity of weapons grade highly enriched uranium (HEU) sufficient for a few nuclear devices. Some US officials, however, express doubts over the report.
    --Simon Henderson and Alain Cass, "Washington May Freeze Nuclear Pact with China," Financial Times (London), 17 July 1984, Section 1, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 July 1984
    Canada convicts 2 Pakistanis of attempting to export US-made equipment to Pakistan without obtaining the required permits. The company Serabit Electronics Ltd. is also convicted. Canada arrested 3 men, Salam Elmenyawi, Mohammad Ahmad, and Abdul Aziz Khan in August 1980 while attempting to illegally export electrical components to Pakistan. Salam Elmenyawi and Mohammad Ahmad are fined $3,000 each on a minor technical charge. The third man, Abdul Aziz Khan, believed to be the prime suspect is acquitted of charges. Abdul Aziz Khan is acquitted after he convinces the Canadian jury over the harmless nature of Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan's research work. The evidence produced by the Canadian prosecutors against Abdul Aziz Khan included letters written by Dr. A.Q. Khan inviting Abdul Aziz Khan to work on a project of "national importance", ambiguous letters explaining the progress of research, and letters explaining the problems faced by the research program. Abdul Aziz Khan also claimed ignorance of the article, explaining uranium enrichment, which was seized during his arrest. Abdul Aziz Khan also claimed during the trial that the inverters (confiscated during the time of his arrest) were intended for use in a textile plant and a food processing plant.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    20 July 1984
    The Information Minister at Pakistan's Embassy in London denies any Chinese assistance in Pakistan's nuclear program. The Minister reaffirms the peaceful nature of Pakistan's nuclear program and states that such allegations have been denied by both China and Pakistan. The Minister also deplores the criticism of Pakistan's nuclear program and points to the lack of such criticism for the nuclear weapons program of India, Israel, and South Africa.
    --"Pakistan's Nuclear Programme," Financial Times (London), 20 July 1984, Section 1, Letters to the Editor, Pg. 13; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 July 1984
    A Pakistani embassy spokesperson Iqbal **** indicates that a request has been made to the US State Department to allow a Pakistani official to visit the three Pakistanis indicted in Houston. The spokesperson denies that Mr. Vaid is representing the Pakistani government and states that the Pakistani embassy learnt of the affair only through the newspapers. The spokesperson also states that Pakistan's nuclear program is only geared towards peaceful purposes.
    --Rick Atkinson, "Use in Arms Feared; Nuclear parts Sought by Pakistanis," Washington Post, 21 July 1984, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 July 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 August 1984
    According a Pakistani news agency, Pakistan succeeds in enriching graphite to over 99%, enabling its use in a nuclear reactor. The graphite is mined in the Neelam valley in the Pakistani part of Kashmir. Pakistani officials also believe that a graphite processing plant might be built in Pakistan controlled part of Kashmir where 0.5 million tons of good quality graphite is available. The pre-investment study was conducted by Pakistan Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (PCSIR) and the pilot as well as laboratory studies for graphite purification have been successful completed. Graphite is used as a moderator in natural uranium fueled uranium reactors that can be used for producing plutonium. Pakistani officials did not provide information on the rationale for purifying graphite. Pakistan's sole nuclear reactor is moderated by heavy-water.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan Reports it is Working on Graphite Purification for Reactor Use," Nucleonics Week, 2 August 1984, Vol. 25, No. 31, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 August 1984
    A statement by the Pakistani Embassy in the United States reports that Pakistan's laboratory-scale plutonium reprocessing facility possesses limited capacity and states that it will take several decades for Pakistan to develop even a single nuclear weapon. The statement further states that Pakistan does not possess a team for designing nuclear weapons.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan Reaffirms Peaceful Atomic Programme," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 4 August 1984, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/7713/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1984
    US State Department officials ask technical experts to examine the recent reports regarding Pakistan's efforts to purify graphite for use in nuclear reactors. A Congressional source indicates that Pakistan's ability to purify graphite will allow it to build a production reactor that can provide Pakistan with an un-safeguarded source of plutonium. The Congressional source also expresses doubts whether Pakistan possesses the technical expertise needed to operate a graphite-moderated nuclear reactor.

    Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) announces his intention to propose a legislation that will require a cut-off in the further sale of F-16 fighter planes to Pakistan unless Pakistan opens its nuclear facilities to IAEA inspections. Sen. Cranston also states that the proposed legislation will also require the US President to certify that Pakistan is not developing nuclear weapons. The Reagan administration indicates that it will oppose the proposed legislation, stating that such legislation will provoke Pakistan to proceed faster in its efforts to develop nuclear weapons.
    --Mike Knapik, "US State Department Officials were Apparently Unaware that Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 9 August 1984, Vol. 25, No. 32, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 August 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 September 1984
    US President Ronald Reagan sends a personal letter to Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq warning that Pakistan might lose American military aid if it persists to pursue its nuclear weapons program. The letter warns President Haq not to enrich uranium beyond 5% at the Kahuta enrichment facility. Certain reactors require 5% enriched uranium for operation and nuclear weapons usually require uranium enriched to over 90%. The enrichment level restriction is believed to be a new "marker" for Pakistan to receive American aid. The other markers include: not testing a bomb, not reprocessing plutonium, not assembling a bomb, and not asking other country to test a device on Pakistan's behalf.
    --David Ignatius, "US Pressuring Pakistan to Abandon Controversial Nuclear-Arms Program," Wall Street Journal, 25 October 1984, Pg. 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; Simon Henderson, "US Warns Pakistan on Enriching Uranium," Financial Times (London), 7 December 1984, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    13 September 1984
    CIA officials brief members of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on the renewal of tensions between India and Pakistan. According to two members of the Committee, CIA officials informed the Committee that India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi was urged earlier this year by some senior aides to attack Pakistan's Kahuta enrichment facility. The Committee's Chairman Senator Barry M. Goldwater (R-AZ) and Vice-Chairman Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-NY) express concern over the possibility of an Indian air raid on Pakistan's Kahuta enrichment facility.
    --Philip Taubman, "Worsening India-Pakistan Ties Worry US," New York Times, 15 September 1984, Section 1, Pg. 2, Col. 2, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    15 September 1984
    US officials term as alarmist the ABC news report which stated that India's Prime Minister is being urged by her military planners to launch a pre-emptive strike against Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Some officials say that the news report might be based on the CIA briefing provided to the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence on 13 September.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US sees India-Pakistan Rifts not as Signals of Imminent War," Washington Post, 15 September 1984, First Section, World News, A23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 September 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq says that Pakistan has taken steps to protect its nuclear facilities from an Indian attack. President Haq states that he is seeking further information on the reports, including the CIA briefing to the US Senate, stating the threat to Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Pakistan's President also rejects the reports as part of CIA's efforts to force Pakistan to provide leasing bases within Pakistan to the United States.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman, "Pakistan has Taken Steps to Protect its Nuclear Installations from Attack," Nucleonics Week, 20 September 1984, Vol. 25, No. 38, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 September 1984
    In a report to the 28th session of the IAEA, China promises to undertake sufficient measures to ensure that other nations do not use Chinese technology to develop nuclear weapons. The leader of the Chinese delegation Jiang Xinxiong informs the IAEA that 'China will, in exporting its nuclear materials and equipment, request the recipient countries to accept the safeguards in line with the principles established in the agency's statute." China is suspected by the United States of assisting Pakistan's nuclear weapons program.
    --"China Opposes Spread of Nuclear Arms," United Press International, 25 September 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 September 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 October 1984
    PAEC Chairman Munir Ahmad Khan states that Pakistan's graphite purification efforts are not related to its nuclear program. Mr. Khan insists that the work is done independently on an experimental level. Mr. Khan says that the graphite purification is not useful for Pakistan's nuclear program since its existing reactor is a heavy-water moderated reactor and its future reactors will be light-water reactors (LWRs). Mr. Khan indicates that no plans are formulated to expand the scale of the graphite purification effort. Mr. Khan also reveals Pakistan's decision to discontinue setting new dates for the submission of bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant project. Mr. Khan indicates that the current plan involves bilateral discussions with the suppliers. According to Dr. Khan, Framatome and Kraftweek Union are being considered for the project.

    In his address to the IAEA, Munir Ahmad Khan reports that the KANUPP reactor is operating satisfactorily despite the imposition of embargoes on the plant. According to Dr. Khan, Pakistan managed to manufacture the fuel and necessary spare parts for the power plant. Dr. Khan mentions that the KANUPP facility has achieved the designed maximum burn-up of 7,000-8,000 Mw-Days per metric ton after several days of irradiation.
    --Ann MacLachlan, "Pakistan AEC Denies Graphite Purification to Aid Nuclear Program," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 25, No. 40, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 4 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 October 1984
    A news report in the Pakistani daily Nawa-i-Waqt states that US President Ronald Reagan, in a letter to President Zia ul-Haq, offered to place Pakistan under the US nuclear umbrella if Pakistan renounces its nuclear weapons program.
    --"Information: Latin, Caribbean News Agencies End Meeting," IPS-Inter Press Service, 15 October 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; William K. Stevens, "India Worried by US Links to Pakistanis," New York Times, 21 October 1984, Section 1, Part 1, Pg. 7, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; William Claiborne, "US Official Holds Talks in India on Aid Row; Arms Supply to Pakistan at Issue," Washington Post, 23 October 1984, First Section, World News, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 October 1984
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub-Khan, without revealing the specifics, states that Pakistan has undertaken "appropriate defensive measures" to protect its nuclear facilities from an Indian attack. Some US sources indicate that some Pakistani nuclear facilities have been moved under-ground as part of its defensive measures.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Pakistan Concerned about Attack on Atomic Plants; Possible Assault by India Regarded as 'Serious Threat,' Foreign Minister says," Washington Post, 12 October 1984, First Section, World News, A28; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 October 1984
    West German Chancellor Helmut Kohl says that West Germany cannot help Pakistan to develop atomic energy as long as it remains outside the NPT. Chancellor Kohl says "We fully understand Pakistan's goals, but there are a lot of problems. We and our friends in the European Community and in America wish that as many countries as possible would accede to the Nonproliferation Treaty." Chancellor Kohl is on an overnight visit to Pakistan after a 6-day visit to China.
    --'Kohl, Zia Confer," Washington Post, 15 October 1984, First Section, World News, Around the World, A12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 October 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq says that West Germany has provided training for Pakistan's nuclear reactor workers and has agreed to consider providing financial aid for the construction of the Chashma nuclear power plant. President Haq mentions that Pakistan sought West German assistance during Chancellor Kohl's visit to Pakistan. According to President Haq, Chancellor Kohl wanted certain clarifications on Pakistan's nuclear program and promised to consider Pakistan's request for further cooperation in the $1.6 billion Chashma nuclear power plant project. West Germany does not respond on Pakistan's claim that West Germany provided training to Pakistani nuclear reactor workers.
    --United Press International, 17 October 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 October 1984
    Retired Lt. Gen Faiz Ali Chishti claims that Pakistan possesses the capability to develop a nuclear weapon but lacks the technology to deliver the weapon. Lt. Gen Chishti states "what is required is ... a delivery system." The retired Pakistani Army General is believed to have assisted in obtaining nuclear techniques and security for Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Lt. Gen Chishti retired from the army in 1981.
    --"Says Pakistan can male A-Bomb, but can't Drop it," United Press International, 19 October 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 October 1984
    US Assistant Secretary of State Richard Murphy says that the United States is convinced that India will not attack Pakistan's nuclear facilities. Mr. Murphy also denies that the United States offered to place Pakistan under its nuclear umbrella in return for Pakistan's renunciation of its nuclear weapons program.
    --"Other Reports; USA Denies Offer of "nuclear umbrella" to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 25 October 1984, Part 3. The Far East; A. International Affairs, a. General and Western Affairs, FE/7783/A1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    25 October 1984
    US State Department officials state that Pakistan is continuing its uranium enrichment effort and other efforts to purchase nuclear equipment despite recent warnings delivered by US Assistant Secretary of State Richard Murphy. Mr. Murphy is believed to have delivered the message that continuation of the nuclear program "in certain areas" will endanger the security relationship between Pakistan and the United States.
    --"United States: Defends Military Support for Pakistan," IPS-Inter Press Service, 25 October 1984; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; David Ignatius, "US Pressuring Pakistan to Abandon Controversial Nuclear-Arms Program," Wall Street Journal, 25 October 1984, Pg. 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 October 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27-28 October 1984
    A Congressional Research Service (CRS) report states that several countries are acquiring capabilities that might be used to develop nuclear weapons. The CRS report examines 23 countries of which 5 are identified with posing the greatest "proliferation threat." The 5 countries are Pakistan, India, Israel, South Africa, and Argentina. The report titled "An Assessment of the Proliferation Threat Today and Tomorrow" is prepared by Warren Donnelly for Senator William Proxmire (D-Wisconsin).
    --Brad Knickerbocker, "Worldwide Concern Sharpens on Issue of Nuclear Proliferation," Christian Science Monitor, 31 October 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 October 1984, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; "Proliferation Dangers Cited in Two Publications," Nuclear News, Safeguards, Reports, Pg. 95; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1984
    Nazir Ahmed Vaid, a Pakistani arrested while attempting to export krytrons to Pakistan, pleads guilty to charges of attempting to illegally export 50 high-speed switches (krytrons) to Pakistan. US intelligence sources indicate that Pakistan also attempted to acquire precision-based explosives that are part of the triggering mechanism in a nuclear weapon.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 November 1984
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq restates his proposal for mutual inspections of nuclear facilities between India and Pakistan. President Haq states that he had made the proposal 3 years ago and did not receive any response from India. President Haq states that "Pakistan and India should forget the rest of the world and appoint a joint commission to inspect each other's nuclear facilities." President Haq made the offer in New Delhi during his trip to attend the cremation ceremony of India's former Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan's President General Zia-ul-Haq has Reiterated his Offer to India," Nucleonics Week, 8 November 1984, Vol. 25, No. 45, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 November 1984
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Yaqub Ali Khan presents President Zia ul-Haq's reply to President Reagan during a meeting at the White House. President Reagan wrote a letter in September warning President Haq against continuing Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. President Haq, in his reply, provides assurances that Pakistan will not enrich uranium beyond 5% as requested by President Reagan.
    -- Simon Henderson, "US Warns Pakistan on Enriching Uranium," Financial Times (London), 7 December 1984, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 November 1984
    The Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan Vitaly Simirnov announces that the Soviet Union will not participate in the Chashma nuclear power plant project. Mr. Simirnov does not specify the exact reasons for the rejection of nuclear assistance but alludes to Pakistan's alleged intervention in Afghanistan, anti-Soviet propaganda, and deteriorating relations between Pakistan and the Soviet Union.
    --Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Soviets say they will not Supply Pakistan with Nuclear Reactor," Nucleonics Week, 22 November 1984, Vol. 25, No. 47, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    29 November 1984
    Four US Senators - Senator Sam Nunn (D-GA), Senator John Glenn (D-OH), Senator James Sasses (D-TN), and Senator J. Bennett (D-LO) - urge Pakistan to sign the NPT. Sen. Nunn also states that the United States will not provide any aid for the Chashma nuclear power plant project.
    --"US Senators Urge Pakistan-India Cooperation," United Press International, 29 November 1984, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 29 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 November 1980
    A report prepared for the Pentagon Nuclear Agency concludes that Pakistan could make at least 24 nuclear weapons by 1990. The report further states that Pakistan possesses 54 planes that can be configured for nuclear delivery. The report is prepared by Rodney W. Jones of Georgetown's University's Center for Strategic and International Studies.
    --Carl Hartman, "Report says Israel may have Extensive Nuclear capability," Associated Press, 30 November 1984, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6 December 1984
    The Spanish architect-engineering firm Sener SA is expected to extend its contract with PAEC for another 2 years. The head of the firm's Power Department Mr. Francisco Albisu says that the firm is currently doing a "few tasks" in Pakistan, and Spanish engineers visit Chashma occasionally to brief local companies on the project. The firm recently prepared an environmental report for the project. Mr. Albisu states that all Sener engineers left Pakistan in later 1983 since no bids were submitted for the Chashma nuclear project. Sener was originally contracted to prepare specifications for the bidding procedure for the planned Chashma nuclear power plant.

    The Spanish government denies reports that a Spanish firm is negotiating the sale of uranium hexa-fluoride (UF6) shipment casks to Pakistan. A spokesperson for the Department of Nuclear Energy at the Industry Ministry says that such a transfer would require an authorization permit from the government and no request has been made by any firm for such a permit.
    --Susan Roberts, "Sener Extending Architect-Engineering Contract with Pakistan's AEC," Nucleonics Week, 6 December 1984, Vol. 25, No. 49, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 December 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    14 February 1985
    Peter Tempus, deputy director general, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Department of Safeguards, expresses satisfaction on the way in which the IAEA safeguards are implemented in Pakistan. Tempus states that "there are no problems for the IAEA in performing its safeguards inspections in Pakistan."
    --"Japan," Nucleonics Week, 14 February 1985, Vol. 26, No. 7, Pg. 12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 February 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 February 1985
    Pakistan continues to maintain that it has no intention of developing a nuclear bomb and states that "all nuclear work has gone into research and development of technology for peaceful purposes."
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 25 February 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 February 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 February 1985
    In response to news reports that Pakistan "tried to get timing devices whose main function is to trigger nuclear bombs," the U.S. State Department says that the Pakistani government has given assurances that its nuclear program is "peaceful in intent."
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 26 February 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 February 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1985
    U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs, Michael Armacost, travels to Islamabad in order to reaffirm Washington's determination to keep a lid on the Pakistani nuclear weapons program. More specifically, he seeks reassurances in Islamabad that Pakistan would refrain from enriching uranium above 5 percent-as requested in President Reagan's September 1984 letter to President Zia; and that it would not take other steps toward the manufacture of nuclear weapons.
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.264.

    14 March 1985
    Pakistani nuclear scientist A.Q. Khan gives a provocative interview in a small-circulation Urdu weekly, Hurmat. In the interview, Khan insists that Pakistan's nuclear program is entirely for peaceful purposes, yet he hints that the nation could carry out "an atomic explosion in a very short time, if required, without conducting any test."
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.264.

    25 March 1985
    The journal of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) claims that Pakistan has joined the small group of countries that explore and mine their own uranium, as well as refine and upgrade it to the required specifications, fabricate it as fuel, and finally burn it in a commercial power reactor to produce electricity. Pakistan's top nuclear scientist, Abdul Qadeer Khan, states that "Pakistan will supply its own fuel to its next nuclear power plant planned at Chashma." Furthermore, the journal of the PAEC states that "backed by extensive uranium exploration and mining, the fabrication of safe and satisfactory fuel bundles for the Karachi nuclear power plant has won for Pakistan, the distinction of mastering the technology of the front end of the nuclear fuel cycle."
    --"AEC Journal Says The Nation Has Mastered Front End Of Fuel Cycle," Nuclear Fuel, 25 March 1985, Vol. 10, No. 6, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 March 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 March 1985
    The Associated Press of Pakistan reports that scientists of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) are modernizing the instrumentation and controls of the 5-megawatt research reactor at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science & Technology (PINSTECH), which is under international safeguards.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 13, Pg. 11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1985, http://web.lexis-nexis.com.; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 28 March 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    April 1985
    Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi communicates his concerns about Pakistan's nuclear program directly to the Pakistanis themselves. In an interview with Mushahid Hussain, editor of the Muslim, he categorically rejects the notion that nuclear weapons would stabilize Indo-Pakistani relations by creating a deterring "balance of terror." "I have never subscribed to the view that 'terror,' balanced or otherwise, would stabilize anything." Furthermore, Gandhi also states that "a nuclear arms race in the subcontinent would only subject both our peoples to the worst possible fate on earth."
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.264.

    25 April 1985
    French Ambassador Roger Duzer makes a short visit to Karachi. During the visit, the Ambassador says that France and Pakistan are still discussing the problem of France selling a reprocessing plant to Pakistan. The two governments have had on and off discussions in regards to this problem, which involves a breach of contract in 1977 for the supply of a reprocessing plant to the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) by the French engineering firm Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN). Dozer mentions that many types of safeguards would be required for the transaction to occur.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 25 April 1985, Pg. 9; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 25 April 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.
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    Pakistan England
    26 April 1985
    Pakistan's Ambassador to India, Humayun Khan, quotes President Mohammed Zia ul-Haq as saying "we have succeeded in enriching uranium up to five per cent, but 90 per cent enrichment is needed to build nuclear weapons."
    --"Pakistan Ambassador On Uranium Enrichment," Patriot (Delhi) In English, 26 April 1985, Pg. 1; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 26 April 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    2 May 1985
    The U.S. Ambassador to Pakistan, Deane R. Hinton, categorically rules out the possibility of cooperation between the United Sates and Pakistan unless Pakistan signs the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) or accepts full-scope safeguards on all of its nuclear facilities. During a press conference in Islamabad, Hinton faces an overwhelming amount of questions in regards to the U.S. opposition to Pakistan's nuclear program. He declares that the United States would be willing to cooperate with Pakistan in the peaceful use of nuclear energy only if Pakistan agrees to the NPT or full-scope safeguards.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 18, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 May 1985
    Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi criticizes the idea, authored by a prominent Pakistani journalist, that if "both India and Pakistan develop nuclear capability, it would stabilize their bilateral relations through a nuclear 'balance of terror.' Gandhi says that "reports of the possible direction of Pakistan's nuclear programs were of serious concern to India and a nuclear arms race would only subject people of both countries to the worst possible fate on earth."
    --"India," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 18, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 May 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 May 1985
    Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq tells the monthly magazine, Quami Digest, that "the United States, the Soviet Union, India, and Israel are part of a worldwide campaign to prevent Pakistan from getting nuclear technology." Zia also tells the magazine that "Pakistan had resisted the pressure and is determined to develop nuclear technology for peaceful purposes."
    --"Zia Charges Exists to Stop Pakistan From Getting Bomb," The Associated Press, 22 May 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 May 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    20 June 1985
    The International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA) Board of Governors approves the continuation of a program to help Pakistan modernize the control and instrumentation systems of its 137-MW Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) located at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The modernization consists of constructing a laboratory for precision calibration and testing.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 25, Pg. 17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 June 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
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    Pakistan England
    15 August 1985
    A United Kingdom engineering firm, Bankwood Engineering Ltd, wins a $270 million order from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for supply of an automatic conveyer system to handle nuclear waste drums. The firm overcame stiff international competition in order to win the award from the PAEC.
    --"Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, Vol. 26, No. 33, Pg. 14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 August 1985, http://web.lexis-nexis.com; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Developments, 15 August 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    Fall 1985
    At the United Nations General Assembly meeting in New York, Pakistan's President Zia, calls for India and Pakistan simultaneously to sign the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), accept mutual fullscope safeguards and inspections, and renounce the acquisition of nuclear weapons. This proposal is duly endorsed by U.S. President Reagan but not by Indian Prime Minister Gandhi.
    --George Perkovich, "Nuclear Capabilities Grow," India's Nuclear Bomb: The Impact on Global Proliferation (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999) p.276.

    13 September 1985
    The Reagan Administration expresses its concern about the "possible development of a nuclear weapon by Pakistan and about overall tensions in the region." Administration officials say that the "underlying concern," in the region is "the danger of Indian retaliation against any nuclear developments in Pakistan."
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 13 September 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 September 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 October 1985
    China confirms that it is cooperating with Pakistan and other nations in the field of nuclear energy, but asserts that the program is for peaceful purposes only. "Our cooperation in the field of nuclear energy with other countries, such as France, Federal (West) Germany, the United States, Brazil, Pakistan, and Japan, whether ongoing or under discussion, serves and will serve only peaceful purposes instead of any non-peaceful purposes."
    --"China Affirms Nuclear Links with Pakistan," The Associated Press, 24 October 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 October 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 October 1985
    The Telegraph Agency of the Soviet Union (TASS) claims that India's Tribune newspaper reported that Pakistan has considerably sped up the preparation for nuclear tests in the past 10 months, putting two "enriched uranium production plants," into operation at the same time. The Tribune also allegedly reported that Pakistan is planning to test a nuclear explosive device in the Taklamakan Desert in the People's Republic of China (PRC), which will have about the same yield as the device exploded by the PRC in 1964.
    --"Pakistan Said Ready To Test Nuclear Device In PRC," TASS (Moscow), 30 October 1985; World Wide Report, 25 November 1985, Pg. 43; in NTI Nuclear and Missile Database, 25 November 1985, Nuclear and Missile Developments.

    18 November 1985
    The International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) announces that it has rendered its judgment on the French-Pakistani legal dispute over the breach of a contract by the French engineering company, Societe Generale pour les Techniques Nouvelles (SGN), to build a 50-100 metric ton reprocessing plant at the Chashma Nuclear Power Plant (CHASNUPP). The Committee rules in favor of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC).
    --"ICC Ruling Said To Favor Pakistan In Reprocessing Plant Dispute," Nuclear Fuel, Vol. 10, No. 23, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 November 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 December 1985
    Indian Prime Minster Rajiv Gandhi and Pakistani President Mohammed Zia-ul-Haq pledge not to attack each other's nuclear installations and to proceed with major new efforts to resolve several disagreements that have increased tensions between the two nations.
    --The New York Times, Information Bank Abstracts, 18 December 1985; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 December 1985, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis
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