Page 2 of 6 FirstFirst 123456 LastLast
Results 21 to 40 of 108

Thread: Nuclear Chronology of Pakistan

Share             
  1. #21
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    2 March 1980
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan rejects the US position that reprocessing of spent fuel, enrichment of uranium, and fast breeder reactor technology should be limited to the five nuclear weapons states, namely, the United States, the USSR, France, China, and the United Kingdom.
    --John K. Cooley, "US-India Nuclear Transaction Watched," Christian Science Monitor, 11 June 1980, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 June 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 March 1980
    The proposed US aid program to Pakistan is reported to be "dead" after statements from both sides reveal differences over the issue. The US State Department spokesperson Hodding Carter says that "The Pakistani government has indicated that it is not interested in the assistance we proposed." Pakistani sources, on the other hand, indicate that the aid amount is very little and too conspicuous. Pakistan fears being seen as a proxy of the United States fighting against the Soviet Union and India.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Pakistan 'Package' Unravels; New Blow to US Diplomacy," Washington Post, 8 March 1980, First Section, A21; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 March 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 March 1980
    Inaugurating the 23rd annual convention of the Institution of Engineers of Pakistan, President Zia ul-Haq reaffirms that his government will continue Pakistan's nuclear program for peaceful purposes.
    --"Pakistan President on Nuclear Development," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 11 March 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 March 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    April 1980
    The West German firm Ces Kalthof hands over the plans for producing UF6 and UF4 to Pakistan. Pakistan fails to pay the final payments for the plants.
    --"German Firm Cited in Case Involving Sale of Fluoride Conversion Plant to Pakistan," Nuclear Fuel, 20 July 1981, Vol. 6, No. 15, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    4 May 1980
    Pakistani official sources denounce recent reports from Kabul and Moscow that President Zia ul-Haq will discuss the question of testing Pakistan's nuclear weapons in China with the Chinese leaders. The sources indicate that Pakistan's nuclear program is geared towards peaceful purposes and also mention that Pakistan has no intention to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Moscow's Fabrication About Pakistan's Intended Nuclear Test in China Refuted," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 6 May 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 May 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    6-18 May 1980
    Following Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq's conclusion of his visit to China, reports suggest that the Chinese leaders have promised to permit the testing of Pakistan's nuclear devices on Chinese territory. According to these reports, the tests will be supervised by Chinese and Pakistani scientists.
    --"Chinese-Pakistani Military Co-operation: Hegemonism and Expansionism," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 22 May 1980, Part 1. The USSR, A. International Affairs, 3. The Far East, SU/6426/A3/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 May 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 June 1980
    In its weekly show Panorama, the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) reveals that Pakistan is developing a nuclear bomb with financial assistance from Libya. The report mentions that Libya's ruler Colonel Qadhafi made a pact with Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto in 1974 to finance Pakistan's nuclear weapons program. Anonymous Pakistani sources indicate the aid amount to total about $4 billion. According to the evidence presented in the show titled "Project 706: The Islamic Bomb", Libya's envoys visited Pakistan with suitcases filled with millions of dollars to fund Pakistan's purchase of equipment and components from European companies. According to the show, Libya has spent $500 million on Pakistan's nuclear program since 1975. According to the BBC, Pakistan will test a nuclear device in 18 months. The show reports that former Pakistani Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto finalized a nuclear cooperation agreement with Libya's Colonel Qadhafi during the early 1970s. Khalid Hasan, a former aide to Bhutto, reveals on the show that during a meeting in 1972, Bhutto revealed to the scientists present that Pakistan is going to build a nuclear bomb.
    --"BBC Says Pakistan Developing Nuclear Bomb," Associated Press, 16 June 1980, International News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Leonard Downie Jr., "US Says Evidence Shows Pakistan Planning A-Bomb," Washington Post, 21 September 1980, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1980
    The economic coordination committee of Pakistan's Cabinet decides to increase the nuclear power generation capacity to 600 MW by 1988 in order to meet the growing demand for energy. The Committee reviews other available sources of energy and concludes that nuclear energy provides the best alternative for Pakistan. A project study, already underway, to increase nuclear power generation is expected to be finished by the end of this year and tenders for the new project are expected to be issued during the next year.
    --"Nuclear Choice for Energy Policy," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 16 July 1980, Part 3. The Far East, Weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Society and Environment, FE/W1091/A/25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 July 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    July 1980
    Two Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) scientists Anwar Ali and I.A. Bhatty arrive in Montreal with a list of items needed for a high-speed inverter. Export of inverters is prohibited by the United States and other countries since it is used for spinning gases in a centrifuge for enriching uranium.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    July - August 1980
    Pakistan buys parts for high speed inverters from American firms like General Electric Co., Westinghouse Electric Corp., RCA Corp. and Motorola Inc. The purchases are made by two small electrical-equipment stores in Montreal. The parts are repackaged and shipped to the Middle East and eventually to Pakistan. The operation is assisted by several highly educated Pakistani expatriates in Canada and the United States. Some of the expatriates are recruited through newspaper advertisements and later persuaded to work for sometime in Pakistan with Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan. Dr. Khan is in charge of the uranium enrichment program.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  2. #22
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    1 August 1980
    India's Minister of External Affairs Narasimha Rao indicates that Pakistan's acquisition of nuclear weapons will increase tensions in the region.
    --"South Asia; Pakistan: Nuclear Research for Peaceful Purposes Only," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 5 August 1980, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6489/A3/12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 August 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    3 August 1980
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson states that Pakistan's nuclear research program is aimed towards peaceful uses of nuclear energy and says that Pakistan does not wish to develop nuclear energy for military use. The spokesperson's comments came in response to the comments expressed by India's Minister of External Affairs. The spokesperson also lists the three proposals made by Pakistan as proof of Pakistan's peaceful intentions. The three proposals are: First, India should agree to the establishment of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. Second, both India and Pakistan should accept international inspections of all nuclear facilities or, if this is not acceptable, India and Pakistan should accept, on a mutual basis, the inspection of each other's nuclear facilities. Third, India and Pakistan should sign the nuclear nonproliferation treaty. Fourth, in the interim, India and Pakistan should join other countries of South Asia in declaring their renunciation of the manufacture or acquisition of nuclear weapons.
    --"Pakistan Foreign Office Spokesman on Nuclear Research for Peace," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 3 August 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 August 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "South Asia; Pakistan: Nuclear Research for Peaceful Purposes Only," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 5 August 1980, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/6489/A3/12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 August 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 August 1980
    India rejects Pakistan's proposal to create a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia. According to a foreign ministry spokesperson, a nuclear weapons-free zone cannot be created without consulting all the countries in the region and also that any such zone must include China.
    --"India Rejects Nuclear Plan," Washington Post, 5 August 1980, First Section, Around the World, A18; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 August 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    29 August 1980
    Canadian Police, acting on a tip from British Customs Service, seize 19 boxes of equipment at the Montreal Mirabel Airport. The boxes were being shipped to Pakistan. The police arrest Abdul Aziz Khan (a Canadian electrical engineer), Salam Elmenyawi (owner of an electrical-equipment store in Montreal), and Mohammad Ahmad (a mechanical engineer working in Quebec). Seized records indicate that 10 other shipments of inverters were sent to Pakistan.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 August 1980
    Canadian police release Abdul Aziz Khan and follow him to a railroad station where he retrieves a suitcase and several documents. Abdul Aziz Khan then shreds the documents, drops them in a trash can, and proceeds to the airport to catch a flight to Pakistan. Abdul Aziz Khan is then rearrested at the airport. The documents, retrieved and pieced together by the Canadian police, include a paper by an American scientist on using high-speed gas centrifuges for uranium enrichment.
    --John J. Fialka, "Nuclear Club: Set to Explode? - Nuclear Spread: How Pakistan Secured US Devices in Canada to make Atomic Arms - Despite Proliferation Barriers, Nation will soon have Ability to Produce Bombs - Jitters in India and the West," Wall Street Journal, 26 November 1984, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1984, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    31 August 1980
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan announces that Pakistan has achieved self-reliance in the manufacture of nuclear fuel from uranium. At a news conference, Munir Ahmad Khan announces that a nuclear fuel manufacturing plant has been built at Chashma by Pakistani scientists. According to him, fuel from the plant has been used in a nuclear power plant during the past month to produce electricity for Karachi. According to Mr. Khan, the setting-up of the indigenous nuclear fuel production plant will save about $40 million in foreign exchange every year since Pakistan earlier had to depend on foreign suppliers for nuclear fuel. Mr. Khan also indicates that PAEC is involved in preparatory work for the construction of a second nuclear power station at Chashma. Mr. Khan states that talks are proceeding to meet the foreign exchange requirements for the project, which is expected to cost $800 million. A plant has also been setup to produce radioactive iodine-131. The plant has been setup at the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology (PINSTECH) by a PAEC scientist. The indigenous production of the isotope is believed to save considerable foreign exchange for Pakistan. PINSTECH also produces 16 other radioactive compounds.
    --"Around the World; Pakistani Official Reports Self-Reliance in Atomic Fuel," New York Times, 1 September 1980, Section A, Pg. 5, Column 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Pakistan Becomes Self-Sufficient in Nuclear Fuel," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 2 September 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Wall Street Journal, 2 September 1980, Pg. 30, Column 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Production of Nuclear Fuel," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 September 1980, Part 3. The Far East, weekly Economic Report, A. Economic and Scientific, Pakistan. Production and Transport, FE/W1099/A/25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  3. #23
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    Summer-September 1980
    The US State Department informs the Swiss government that five Swiss firms are still providing equipment and technical assistance to Pakistan's uranium enrichment process. The formal complaint is given to the outgoing Swiss Ambassador Raymond Probst by the Assistant Secretary of State Thomas Pickering. Two of the firms included in the list, CORA and VAT, have already been mentioned to Swiss authorities last year. The complaint mentions that personnel from CORA are in Kahuta assisting the Pakistanis in building an enrichment plant. According to Claude Zangger, scientist in charge of nuclear technology export policy and controls for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy, CORA might be performing after-delivery service in Pakistan. The inclusion of VAT in the list of complaints surprises Zangger because according to him, VAT officials had informed him that they would not supply anything to Pakistan owing to bad publicity. The formal complaint lists three other firms that are exporting a ventilation system, aluminum tubing, and machine tools to Pakistan. Zangger indicates that the issue will be discussed with the concerned firms. According to Zangger, the Swiss firm queried the government whether the special ventilation system is categorized under the restricted list of items. The government replied that the item is not included in the list and hence no export license is necessary.

    Swiss officials insist that the items exported to Pakistan are not banned under existing export control regulations owing to their use in multiple purposes. Swiss officials indicate that they are aware of the exports of some of the companies listed in the formal complaint by the United States but insist that the Swiss government did not act because the exports did not violate Swiss or international laws. According to Swiss officials, the export control guidelines and lists cover only specific processes for producing weapons grade materials but not the individual components of such processes. Swiss officials also reveal that some of the components exported by Swiss firms can be used in building a reprocessing plant that will separate plutonium from spent nuclear fuel. According to Swiss authorities, even these materials are not included in any international export guidelines. Some US officials contend that Switzerland is violating the spirit of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (NPT) and a supplementary agreement reached by 15 countries that provide nuclear technology. Switzerland has reportedly refused repeated US requests to either expand its export control lists or restrict any items exported by Switzerland that could possibly be used by Pakistan to develop nuclear weapons. Switzerland's Deputy Foreign Minister Raymond Probst says that such stringent measures will not be beneficial to Switzerland's nuclear technology industry. Probst says however that Switzerland is willing to discuss the implementation of new controls, provided all the other countries exporting nuclear technology agree to implement the same control mechanisms. Probst also indicates that Switzerland has not made a judgment on Pakistan's development of nuclear weapons and says that the official view of the Swiss government is that Pakistan is not developing nuclear weapons.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "Swiss Sending Nuclear Aid to Pakistan; US Contends Sale Speeds Developing of an Atomic Bomb," Washington Post, 21 September 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Leonard Downie Jr., "US, Swiss at Impasse on A-Policy; US Suspends Nuclear Cooperation with Switzerland; Nuclear Licensing Delayed as Bern Assists Pakistan," Washington Post, 22 September 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 September 1980
    US experts pointing to intelligence reports, photographs of construction of the uranium enrichment plant at Kahuta, and statements by the former Prime Minister Zulfikar Ali Bhutto believe that Pakistan would need several years to finish the enrichment plant and produce weapons grade uranium for nuclear bombs. The US experts, however, believe that Pakistan's enrichment effort is now irreversible. According to US experts, Pakistan is buying components from Switzerland, the United States, Britain, West Germany, and other countries.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "US Says Evidence Shows Pakistan Planning A-Bomb," Washington Post, 21 September 1980, First Section, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 September 1980
    The Carter administration interrupts nuclear cooperation with Switzerland in retaliation for the Swiss export of nuclear technology to Pakistan. The US State Department delays the grant of license needed by the Swiss government to reprocess it spent fuel in France. The US government also blocks a previously undisclosed Swiss request to export plutonium to Italy. The State Department informs the Swiss government that the licenses will be withheld until the Swiss authorities satisfy the concerns of the United States government regarding the sale of nuclear technology to Pakistan. The US officials warn the Swiss government that the US Congress might be forced to cut off nuclear cooperation under the Nuclear Nonproliferation Act.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "US, Swiss at Impasse on A-Policy; US Suspends Nuclear Cooperation with Switzerland; Nuclear Licensing Delayed as Bern Assists Pakistan," Washington Post, 22 September 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 September 1980
    The Swiss government rejects accusations that it has failed to abide by its nuclear export control commitments by permitting Swiss companies to export nuclear technology to Pakistan. Erwin Bischoff, a Foreign Ministry spokesperson, indicates that none of the exported items are prohibited under international export guidelines. Bischoff also states that the Swiss government has monitored all the exports to Pakistan to ensure their compliance with existing international exports guidelines. The spokesperson further adds that Switzerland is willing to negotiate an extension of existing guidelines, provided such extensions are binding on all countries.
    --"Swiss Deny Allegations," New York Times, 23 September 1980, Section A, Pg. 7, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 September 1980
    The Swiss Foreign Ministry announces its investigation into the sale of nuclear technology to Pakistan after the United States expressed concern over the sale. The Secretary of State at the Foreign Ministry, Raymond Probst, informs the press conference that the investigation is being conducted even though the Swiss government has provided assurances that the items are not included in any of the existing export control lists. Meanwhile, a Swiss Foreign Ministry spokesperson announces that Switzerland will continue to export equipment and provide technical assistance to Pakistan. According to the spokesperson, the items exported to Pakistan are not banned under any international embargo list.
    --"US Fears Prompt Swiss to Study Pakistan Trade," New York Times, 23 September 1980, Section A, Pg. 6, Column 6, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1980, http://www.lexisnexis.com; 'Switzerland Goes on Exporting Nuclear Materials to Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 24 September 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 September 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1980
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) informs Nucleonics Week that it will invite international bids for the Chashma nuclear power plant as soon as the finances for the project become available.
    --"Twelve Spanish Engineers are Under a One-Year Contract with Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 24 September 1981, Vol. 22, No. 38, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1980
    Pakistani scientists are reportedly working on a clandestine plutonium reprocessing facility near Rawalpindi. The completion of the reprocessing facility will advance Pakistan's ability to test a nuclear device by about two years. According to intelligence experts, the plutonium reprocessing facility will supply Pakistan with sufficient fissile material to conduct a test in the fall of 1981.
    --Richard M. Weintraub and Les Whittington, "Pakistan Said to Receive Nuclear Arms Parts Illegally via Canada," Washington Post, 7 December 1980, First Section, World News, A 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1980
    Canadian police seize a shipment of electronic equipment at Montreal's Dorval Airport. The shipment is worth US $47,000. Canadian sources indicate that at least 10 other shipments had previously left Canada through the Dorval Airport. The combined worth of the previous shipments is believed to be Canadian $560,000.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  4. #24
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    September 1980 - 1981
    Following Pakistan's declaration of its ability to manufacture its own nuclear fuel, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requests Pakistan to allow the IAEA to increase its surveillance capability at the KANUPP facility. Currently the surveillance equipment includes specially adapted Minolta 8mm movie cameras, mounted in pairs and firing every eight or 10 minutes. The cameras are placed in sealed glass fronted boxes and are aligned to produce a wide angle and a telephoto view of the targets. Currently, the cameras target the storage pond, where the spent fuel rods are dumped, and a decontamination bay. The inspection process involves checking the seals for the cameras, unloading the camera films, developing the films, reloading the cameras, and resealing the camera boxes. The IAEA request to increase its surveillance capability includes relocation of the cameras at the spent-fuel bay and installing an extra camera, and relocating the camera at the decontamination bay. The IAEA wants two sets of cameras to cover the maintenance area for the fueling machine, a possible location for diverting plutonium. The IAEA wants the spend fuel rods to be arranged in a different manner in the storage pond. The IAEA also wants to take the camera films to be taken to its headquarters in Vienna for cross-examination. Most importantly, the IAEA wants to install "bundle counters" that will record the number of times fuel rods are inserted and withdrawn. Pakistan refuses to agree to the requests and points to the fact that the IAEA has not asked India to adopt such increased surveillance methods. The IAEA also requests an increase in the frequency of inspections at the KANUPP facility.
    -- David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    October 1980
    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carries out a "full inventory verification" of the KANUPP reactor. An inventory of all dangerous materials is prepared during the inspection. Even though Pakistan is not a signatory to the NPT, the inspections are required under the original sales agreement for the CANDU-type reactor supplied by Canada. The full inspection is conducted after concerns are raised over a power outage that interrupts the functioning of the camera that monitors the transfer of fuel to the fuel storage pond. An IAEA source reveals that the camera was out of commission for about 3 months. The IAEA inspectors perform a manual count of the spent fuel since the monitoring camera is believed to have stopped working since the last inspections in August.
    --Victoria Pope, "IAEA Reaches Accord on Spain amid Upbeat Safeguards Review Elsewhere," Nucleonics Week, 5 March 1981, Vol. 22, No. 9, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 March 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Paul Lewis, "UN Atom Agency Lauds Moves by Egypt and Libya," New York Times, 28 February 1981, Section 1, Pg. 3, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 November 1980
    According to Hong Kong's Asia Week, Pakistan has spent $2 billion on its nuclear program.
    --"Sino Pakistani Military Cooperation Aimed against Pakistan's Neighbors," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 14 November 1980, Part 1. The USSR, C.1 Afghanistan, SU/6575/C1/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 November 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 November 1980
    Pakistan's government dismisses recent reports that Chinese nuclear rockets have been sited in Pakistan. The government also terms as baseless certain reports mentioning that Chinese armed forced have conducted joint military exercises with Pakistani forces.
    --"Pakistan Refutes Allegation of Chinese Military Presence in Pakistan," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 25 November 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 November 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    First Week of December 1980
    Canada charges three men with violating export control laws by attempting to export certain electronic components. The shipment of electronic components is valued at $42, 500 and the shipment was seized at Montreal's Mirabel airport. The three men are charged with exporting US goods from Canada without a permit. The three men are Salam Elmenyawi (31), Mohammed Ahmad (44), and Abdul Aziz Khan (40). All the three charged men are Canadian citizens. Khan is an engineer from Pakistan, Elmenyawi is a businessman originally from Egypt, and Ahmad is a mechanical specialist from India. Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) officials indicate that they possess evidence of at least five other shipments of similar electronic parts that were exported earlier this year. It is not known whether the same three charged men are involved in sending the previous shipments. The charges about the previous shipments have not been made public. Officially, the seized equipment is stated as "condensers and resistors" but Canadian experts indicate that the seized electronic parts are components of an inverter. Inverters are used in processes to enrich uranium or to provide electricity needed for the manufacture of nuclear weapon parts. Officials mention that it is legal to possess such equipment within Canada but insist that exporting such equipment is against strict export control laws. A report in a current affairs program of the Canadian Broadcasting Group reveals that two Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) officials obtained visas earlier this year to work in the Pakistani consulate in Montreal. According to the report, however, the two officials did not visit the Montreal Pakistani consulate during their stay in Montreal from July 7-21. The news report alleges that the PAEC officials were involved in procuring electronic parts for Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --Richard M. Weintraub and Les Whittington, "Pakistan Said to Receive Nuclear Arms Parts Illegally via Canada," Washington Post, 7 December 1980, First Section, World News, A 37; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1980
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Agha Shahi rejects reports about the manufacture of an "Islamic Bomb" and the testing of Pakistan's nuclear bomb on Chinese territory as false allegations.
    --"Pakistan Foreign Minister Repudiates False Allegations about Manufacturing Bomb," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 10 December 1980; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 December 1980
    The Swiss government promises to closely review and possibly ban future exports of nuclear technology to Pakistan that could be used to manufacture nuclear weapons. In return, the United States agrees to resume nuclear cooperation with Switzerland. The Swiss government agrees to specially scrutinize a particular evaporation and condensation technology currently used by Pakistan. According to Claude Zangger, Swiss nuclear energy chief, Pakistan used the evaporation and condensation technology supplied by the Swiss firm CORA to build a pilot enrichment plant. According to Zangger, any future efforts by Pakistan to acquire such equipment for building an industrial scale enrichment facility will be closely reviewed by the Swiss government. Zangger indicates that Switzerland might ban the sale or request implementation of IAEA safeguards as a precondition for a sale. Zangger, however, mentions that the Swiss government has not finalized its policy on such exports and is merely promising to rigorously review any future exports. According to Zangger, an examination of the problems facing such exports is currently underway and the Swiss firms are waiting for the completion of the examination. Zangger reiterates that Switzerland will not unilaterally expand its export control list.
    --Leonard Downie Jr., "US Prepared to Resume Nuclear Cooperation; Swiss, US Set to Resume Nuclear Energy Cooperation," Washington Post, 31 December 1980, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 31 December 1980, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1980
    The United States and the three countries from the URENCO project - Britain, West Germany, and the Netherlands - begin discussions on strengthening export controls on centrifuge technology.
    --"Centrifuge Suppliers Meeting Privately to Shore up Trigger List," Nucleonics Week, 25 November 1982, Vol. 23, No. 47, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1980
    The United States informs Turkey about Turkish firms' assistance to Pakistan's nuclear explosives program by supplying inverters. The United States requests the Turkish government to halt the transfer of such electric equipment. The Turkish government does not act on US requests and insists that the inverters, which cost $100,000 a piece, are not covered under existing export control regulations.
    --Barry Schweid, "US Asks Turks to Stop Equipment Shipments," Associated Press, 27 June 1981, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  5. #25
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    1981
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) continues uranium exploration activities. PAEC is conducting geological mapping, radiometric measurements, drilling and subsurface excavations in the Potwar region. The exploration reveals the existence of uranium ores at Isa Khel and Thatti Nasratti. According to investigations, Isa Khel possesses three zones of uranium ore below the surface. Another zone at Thatti Nasratti is investigated to determine its nature.
    --"Pakistan," Mining Annual Review, June 1982, Countries, Far East, Pg. 407; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Early 1981
    Twenty-three Pakistani engineers and officials visit Spain and are taken to various industrial installations and the Junta de Energia Nuclear.
    --"Pakistan Could be ready to Accept Bids for A," Nucleonics Week, 8 October 1981, Vol. 22, No. 40, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    8 January 1981
    According to an assessment by Ishrat Usmani, former chief of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan needs to overcome extreme technological challenges in acquiring sufficient fissile material, either through reprocessing or the enrichment process. In the case of the enrichment process, Usmani predicts that Pakistan will face severe challenges in maintaining the ultra-high speeds for the period necessary for producing weapons-grade uranium. Pakistan, according to Mr. Usmani, will also face problems in acquiring the highly corrosive hydrofluoric acid and handling it. In the case of reprocessing, Usmani states that Pakistan will face difficulties in obtaining spent fuel since the only existing source of spent fuel, the KANUPP reactor, is under IAEA safeguards. Usmani expresses doubts about Pakistan's ability to reprocess sufficient quantities of plutonium necessary for a nuclear device. He concludes that Pakistan might be able to produce only a crude nuclear device even if it manages to produce the necessary fissile material.
    --Rob Laufer, "Pakistan's Nuclear Patriarch Faults Homeland's Nuclear Policies," Nucleonics Week, 8 January 1981, Vol. 22, No. 1, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 January 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 January 1981
    According to Sunday Times (London), Saudi Arabia will sign an agreement with Pakistan to finance Pakistan's attempts to build an atomic bomb. Saudi Arabia reportedly made the offer several weeks ago at a secret meeting in Europe in order to keep Iraq or Libya from financing Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --"Saudi Nuclear Pact," Washington Post, 19 January 1981, First Section, Around the World, A22; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 January 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 January 1981
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson denies the Sunday Times report that mentioned the signing of a pact between Saudi Arabia and Pakistan, with the former offering $800 million to finance Pakistan's nuclear program. The spokesperson reiterates that Pakistan's nuclear research and development efforts are totally indigenous. The Pakistani spokesperson also mentions that Saudi Arabia's government has rejected the news report.
    --"Pakistan Rejects Report on Saudi-Assisted Nuclear Programme," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 23 January 1981; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 January 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 February 1981
    Congressional sources suggest that US nonproliferation laws might be amended to provide assistance to Pakistan. Congressional sources indicate that such measures are prompted by fears that Pakistan might come under Russia's influence. Sources indicate that aid to Pakistan might be included as part of a broader "Persian Gulf Package." Resumption of aid to Pakistan will require a modification of the Symington Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act and the Glenn Amendment to the Foreign Assistance Act. The Symington amendment prohibits assistance to countries receiving or sending enrichment equipment, material or technology not under international safeguards. The Glenn amendment prohibits assistance to countries involved in unsafeguarded reprocessing deals.
    --"Desire to Help Pakistan May Evoke Revision of Symington Amendment," Nuclear Fuel, 2 February 1981, Vol. 6, No. 3, Pg. 12; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 February 1981
    Pakistan denies recent Canadian television network and a Canadian weekly report that it is involved in clandestine efforts to procure electronic parts in Canada for its nuclear weapons program. Pakistan's embassy in Ottawa restates the peaceful nature of Pakistan's nuclear program.
    --"Pakistan Denies Reports of Secret Deals with Canada," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 10 February 1981, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6645/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 February 1981
    Netherlands' Justice Minister Job De Ruiter, in a letter to a parliamentary commission, says that Abdul Qadeer Khan would be investigated under the terms of a law on the unlawful acquisition of state secrets. Mr. Ruiter says that the trial will be held in absentia since A.Q. Khan cannot be extradited to Netherlands to face charges. The Justice Minister also informs that legal proceedings are being taken against two Dutch engineering companies that are believed to have supplied sensitive equipment to Pakistan's uranium enrichment effort. Dutch sources indicate that one of the companies exported at least nine shipments of sensitive equipment that could be used in the construction of the enrichment plant. The sources indicate that at least one of shipments was made without a required export license.
    --United Press International, 11 February 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 February 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 February 1981
    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Director's report announces the outcome of its October 1980 inspections of the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor as "satisfactory." IAEA officials indicate that the inventory guaranteed that Pakistan is not diverting materials from the nuclear facility for military purposes. IAEA officials also indicate that Pakistan is building an unsafeguarded uranium enrichment facility and a reprocessing facility to produce plutonium from the spent fuel produced in the reactor. The report also informs the IAEA Board of Governors that the source for Pakistan's spent fuel for its reprocessing activities will originate from the KANUPP reactor rather than an existing research reactor.
    --Paul Lewis, "UN Atom Agency Lauds Moves by Egypt and Libya," New York Times, 28 February 1981, Section 1, Pg. 3, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 February 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Victoria Pope, "IAEA Reaches Accord on Spain amid Upbeat Safeguards Review Elsewhere," Nucleonics Week, 5 March 1981, Vol. 22, No. 9, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 5 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    February 1981
    Pakistan begins to load its Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor with indigenously produced fuel bundles.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Handling of Plutonium at Issue; Pakistan backs Atomic Safeguards," Washington Post, 17 November 1982, First Section, World News, General News, A25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  6. #26
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    3 March 1981
    Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-Bronx), Chairman of the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on International Economic Policy and Trade, writes a letter to US Secretary of State Alexander Haig Jr., asking him to consider the termination of US nuclear supply to France and Italy. The letter states that the assistance provided by France, Italy, and Switzerland to Pakistan's nuclear program presents a "clear and present danger to the United States and indeed, Western security interests in the Persian Gulf and South Asia."
    --Judith Miller, "Cranston Sees Iraq as Nuclear Power by '82," New York Times, 18 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Column 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 March 1981
    Top officials within the US State Department express concern that Pakistan's testing of a nuclear weapon might force India to launch a strike against Pakistan's nuclear installations.
    --US News & World Report, 16 March 1981, Washington Whispers, Pg. 18; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 March 1981
    US Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) alleges that Pakistan is continuing to purchase dual-use nuclear technology from Europe and states that "it [Pakistan] will most likely have the capacity and the materials for fabricating a number of nuclear weapons by the end of 1982." Senator Cranston discloses that he has verified the accuracy of the information with officials in the Reagan administration. Senator Cranston also urges the Reagan administration to threaten to cut-off the supply of nuclear fuel to France, Italy, and other countries if they continue their nuclear cooperation with Pakistan. Certain sources in the Congress and the Reagan administration, pointing to intelligence information, indicate that Pakistan has already designed an atomic bomb. The same sources also reveal that despite the assurances given by the Swiss authorities to stem the export of sensitive nuclear material to Pakistan, such exports are still continuing.
    --Edward Walsh, "Cranston says Iraq Prods Europe for A-Arms Data," Washington Post, 18 March 1981, First Section, A15; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 March 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Judith Miller, "Cranston Sees Iraq as Nuclear Power by '82," New York Times, 18 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Column 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 March 1981
    The Swiss government concludes that exports of nuclear equipment to Pakistan by Swiss firms did not violate any national or international controls. Swiss officials indicate that Swiss firms abided by the trigger list produced by the London Suppliers Club. Swiss officials also express willingness to expand their control list based on a multilateral agreement that is binding on all nuclear supplier countries.
    --"Exports to Pakistan by Swiss Firms were not in Violation," Nucleonics Week, 19 March 1981, Vol. 22, No. 11, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 March 1981
    US Secretary of State Alexander Haig Jr., testifying before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, urges Congress to modify existing law in order to "re-establish a dialogue of trust and confidence" with Pakistan. Mr. Haig testifies that he hopes to bring a number of countries into a strategic consensus in order to counter Soviet Union's expansion in the region. Secretary Haig states that Pakistan is not eligible to receive aid under existing laws and indicates that "it is my belief that you get more by removing the insecurities that foster the nuclear thirst" among nations like Pakistan.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "Haig Says US Seeks Consensus Strategy in the Middle East," New York Times, 20 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 6, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 March 1981
    US Under-Secretary of State James L. Buckley, in his testimony before the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee, urges the repeal of the Symington amendment that prohibits aid to countries that have detonated or are seeking to acquire nuclear weapons. Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) challenges Buckley's request stating that such repeal will encourage Pakistan to pursue its program to develop nuclear weapons.
    --Judith Miller, "Reagan Seeking more 'Flexibility' to set Foreign Policy," New York Times, 20 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 6, Column 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 March 1981
    A spokesperson for the Swiss firm CORA Engineering announces at Chur, Switzerland that the firm is halting all deliveries of equipment for a nuclear facility in Pakistan. According to the spokesperson, a bomb attack on the company and threats against its company executives forced the company to reach the decision to halt the deliveries.
    --"Other Reports; Swiss Firm Halts Supplies of Nuclear Equipment to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 28 March 1981, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 1. General and Western Affairs, FE/6685/A1/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 March 1981
    US administration officials indicate that the Reagan administration has tentatively decided to offer $500 million in aid to Pakistan. Congressional sources and Administration officials are not sure whether Pakistan will accept the aid offer since it does not wish to be seen as a close associate of the United States. Sources in the Congress and the Reagan Administration indicate that the Reagan administration has tentatively decided to offer $400 million in military credits, $100 million in economic support, and $600,000 in military training. Even though existing laws prohibit any aid to Pakistan, Reagan administration officials have urged Congress in recent days to amend the existing laws reasoning that Pakistan might be deterred from producing nuclear weapons if its security needs are addressed. Some US officials express concern that Pakistan will persist in its attempts to produce nuclear weapons irrespective of the amount of aid given by the United States. Some officials believe that Pakistan can be persuaded from developing nuclear weapons if the United States offers to rewrite the 1959 security pledge pledging to assist Pakistan in case of an attack by India. The 1959 pledge offers assistance only in the case of an attack by a Communist state.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "Washington Plans $500 million in Aid for Pakistanis," New York Times, 24 March 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 March 1981
    The US State Department indicates that the proposed aid to Pakistan will be provided only if Pakistan refrains from testing a nuclear device. The Reagan administration is proposing a change in the existing non-proliferation laws to allow military and other aid to Pakistan as long as it does not explode a nuclear device.
    --Jim Anderson, United Press International, 25 March 1981, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 March 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1981
    World Bank President Robert McNamara visits Pakistan and the Pakistani government discusses a possible World Bank financing for its 600 Mw second nuclear power plant at Chashma.
    --"There are String Indications that Pakistan, Facing the Worst Power Shortage," Nucleonics Week, 14 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 2, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  7. #27
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    16 April 1981
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) awards a contract to Sener, a Spanish firm, for the supply of atomic energy services for the Chashma nuclear power plant. Spanish sources indicate the plant's reactor to be a 600-900 MW light water reactor (LWR). Even though Pakistan has not indicted a specific startup date for the plant, it is expected to begin operations by the end of the decade.
    --"The Spanish Company Sener will Supply A-E Services for Pakistan's Chashma," Nucleonics Week, 16 April 1981, Vol. 22, No. 15, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 April 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 April 1981
    US Secretary of State Alexander M. Haig and the Pakistani Foreign Minister Agha Shahi conclude one and half days of talks over the proposed US aid package to Pakistan. The new relationship will likely be finalized in the coming months. Shahi announces that the United States has presented a five-year aid proposal. US sources indicate that Pakistan's nuclear weapons program did not come up for major discussion during the talks. The Reagan administration did not seek any new assurances from Pakistan over its nuclear weapons program.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "US, Pakistan Progressing on New Aid Plan," Washington Post, 22 April 1981, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 April 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Pakistan Reports US has offered 5-Year Aid Deal," New York Times, 22 April 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 5, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 April 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 April 1981
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) announces that India and Pakistan are preparing test sites for conducting nuclear tests. According to Sen. Cranston, Pakistan is building a horizontal tunnel in a hillside in the Baluchistan Mountains, about 40 miles from the Afghanistan border. Even though Sen. Cranston did not specify the sources for the information, senior Reagan administration officials confirm the information presented by the Senator. Recently, the intelligence community is believed to have provided administration officials with similar information. In a separate incident, two witnesses from the State Department indicate that Pakistan has not provided guarantees that it would not test a nuclear device. The witnesses also indicate that the United States has not requested such a guarantee. During a hearing at the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee on Asian and Pacific Affairs, Leslie H. Brown, Deputy Director of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs says that "we haven't sought such assurances, but we don't believe that they could be obtained." Jane A. Coon, Deputy Assistant Secretary of State for Near East and South Asian Affairs indicates that Pakistan and United States are just beginning to rebuild their relationships and suggests that more time is needed before such assurances can be obtained.
    --Judith Miller, "Cranston Says India and Pakistan are Preparing for Nuclear Testing," New York Times, 28 April 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Column 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 April 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    April 1981
    The IAEA informs Pakistan that the safeguards at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor would have to be upgraded since Pakistan has started to produce its own fuel for the reactor. The IAEA and Pakistan begin talks over increasing the safeguards mechanism at the reactor.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Handling of Plutonium at Issue; Pakistan backs Atomic Safeguards," Washington Post, 17 November 1982, First Section, World News, General News, A25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    5 May 1981
    Pakistani officials reject a report by an Indian news agency that Pakistan is preparing to test a nuclear device in the jungles of Sind province.
    --"Pakistan Denies making Preparations for Nuclear Blast," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 6 May 1981; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of May 1981
    The Soviet Ambassador to Pakistan Vitaly Smirov indicates that the Soviet Union is willing to assist Pakistan in the nuclear power field. According to the Pakistan Press International news agency, the Soviet Ambassador also offers to provide effective assistance in the field of thermal plants and other ways to overcome Pakistan's energy crisis. Mr. Smirov offers 4 nuclear power units to Pakistan.
    --"The Soviet Union is Prepared to Aid Pakistan in the Nuclear Power Field, Soviet Ambassador," Nucleonics Week, 14 May 1981, Vol. 22, No. 19, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 May 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "Pakistan has Asked the Soviet Union to Help in the Construction," Nucleonics Week, 22 December 1983, Vol. 24, No. 51, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 December 1983, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 May 1981
    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee votes to lift aid restrictions on Pakistan and authorizes $100.6 million in economic and military assistance. The measure is passed by the Foreign Relations Committee and exempts Pakistan from the Symington amendment that prohibits aid to countries that are pursuing uranium enrichment technology and also refuse to provide assurances that they are not developing nuclear weapons. Out of the $100.6 million, $100 million is to be used for security-related economic aid and $600,000 for military training assistance. The measure requires the US president to inform the Senate about the details of the aid program and the Administration's policy to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons.
    --Judith Miller, 'Senate Panel Votes to Lift Restrictions on Pakistan Aid," New York Times, 15 May 1981, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 May 1981
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) alleges that Pakistan's nuclear weapons could end up in the hands of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) either through Libya which, according to Sen. Cranston, is involved in Pakistan's nuclear program or directly from Pakistan since Pakistan's ruler General Haq is the chairman of the Muslim Conference.
    --"Cranston Warns Pakistan Bombs Could Wind Up with PLO," Associated Press, 16 May 1981, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 May 1981
    Turkey rejects press reports indicating that Pakistan and Turkey are jointly planning to conduct a nuclear test. The information department of the Turkish Foreign Ministry indicates that Turkey will not allow nuclear testing on its territory and reiterates Turkey's commitment to pursue peaceful uses of nuclear energy.
    --"In Brief; Turkish Denial of A-Bomb Test Reports," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 25 May 1981, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, C. Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, ME/6732/C/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 May 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  8. #28
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    12 June 1981
    The United States decides to offer 15 and possibly more F-16 fighter planes to Pakistan. The planes are to be offered as part of the planned five-year economic and military aid package. The cost of each F-16 fighter plane, including spare parts and other support equipment, is $14.5 million. A State Department official believes that Saudi Arabia might finance the procurement of these planes. The offer is approved at a National Security Council meeting last week despite the objections raised by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and the US Air Force (USAF). The OMB insists that the F-5 fighters are cheaper and better suited for Pakistan's requirements. The USAF objected that changes in the production schedules will adversely affect US requirements. Officials from the Pentagon and the State department approve the sale as a symbolic gesture that will indicate the Administration's emphasis on building a strengthened relationship with Pakistan.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan is being Offered the F-16 as Part of a US Military Aid Plan," New York Times, 13 June 1981, Section 1, Pg. 1, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 June 1981
    The United States and Pakistan agree on a $3 billion military and economic aid deal to strengthen Pakistan's military in the face of the Soviet threat in Afghanistan. A US State Department spokesperson, David Passage, announces that "This Administration believes that by addressing those security concerns which have motivated Pakistan's nuclear program and reestablishing a relationship of confidence with it offer the best opportunity in the long run for effectively dealing with its nuclear program." The announcement of the deal is made in a joint-statement issued in Islamabad and Washington D.C. following a trip to Pakistan by the Under-Secretary of State for Security Assistance James L. Buckley. The announcement does not include any reference to nuclear weapons. The five-year aid program involves $400 million in loans every year for military purchases as well as $100 million economic assistance annually. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee has already approved a Presidential waiver of the restrictions imposed in 1975 regarding Pakistan's unsafeguarded reprocessing and enrichment facilities. The House Foreign Affairs Committee, however, has not approved such a measure. Therefore, Pakistan's arms program can be vetoed if it fails to win the majorities in both houses of Congress.
    --Juan de Onis, New York Times, 16 June 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 6, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 June 1981
    In response to a question over the proposed aid to Pakistan and whether Pakistan has provided assurances not to develop nuclear weapons, US president Reagan refuses to answer whether Pakistan has provided assurances not to test nuclear weapons and indicates that it is important for the United States to assist Pakistan owing to Pakistan's strategic location.
    --"Transcript of the President's News Conference on Foreign and Domestic Affairs," New York Times, 17 June 1981, Section A, Pg. 26, Col. 1, National Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20-21 June 1981
    The US State Department, in a secret cable sent to US Embassy in Ankara, asks the Turkish government to end its secret shipments of sensitive equipment to Pakistan that could be used to develop nuclear weapons. According to the cable, Turkish companies are re-routing American-made electric equipment, known as inverters, from Europe to Pakistan. Inverters transform electrical current to charge batteries and operate instruments and are used in nuclear plants. The cable terms the operation as a "covert purchasing network" and claims that Turkish companies have circumvented US and European export controls while conducting these transshipments. The cable also suggests that Pakistan's ruler General Haq might have offered nuclear technology to Turkey in exchange for these transshipments. The cable informs the US embassy in Turkey to inform the Turkish government that continuation of these transshipments will jeopardize Turkey's own aid program. Apart from the secret purchasing network, the cable also warns that Pakistan is seeking technology and material to produce fuel for explosive devices. The cable says that "we [United States] also have information that Pakistan is conducting a program for the design and development of the triggering package for nuclear explosive devices." The cable also warns that a nuclear test by Pakistan will lead to the cancellation of the proposed military and economic aid to Pakistan.
    --Barry Schweid, "US Asks Turks to Stop Equipment Shipments," Associated Press, 27 June 1981, Washington Dateline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 June 1981
    The US Under-Secretary of State James L. Buckley, in a testimony before the Senate Government Affairs Committee, announces that Pakistan's President and Ministers have provided "absolute assurances" that Pakistan does not intend to develop nuclear weapons. Buckley also states that Pakistan has not provided assurances not to seek a weapons-making ability or peaceful nuclear explosions like the one exploded by India in 1974. In responding to Senator Charles H. Percy's (R-Il) statement that aid to Pakistan will be cut-off if it explodes any kind of nuclear device, Buckley indicates that he has not stated such a clause during his talks with the Pakistanis, but indicates that "They [Pakistanis] are familiar with our laws."
    --Judith Miller, "US Cites Pakistani Pledge not to Make Atom Arms," New York Times, 25 June 1981, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    28 June 1981
    The Turkish government asserts that it does not intend to develop nuclear weapons nor assist other countries in developing such weapons. In a statement issued by the Turkish embassy in the United States, the Turkish government indicates that it will look into the allegations of Turkish firms' involvement in sending electric equipment to Pakistan and undertake necessary action as per the obligations of the nuclear nonproliferation treaty. The statement indicates that the involvement of Turkish firms in sending sensitive nuclear equipment to Pakistan has been brought to the attention of the Turkish government for the first time.
    --Barry Schweid, "Turkey says it won't Help in Development of Nuclear Weapons," Associated Press, 28 June 1981, Washington Deadline; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 28 June 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 July 1981
    A West German engineering firm, Ces Kalthof, says that it sold Pakistan equipment for making uranium-hexafluoride, a material that could be used to make nuclear fuel. Albrecht Migule, the firm's Director, denies a news report in the German magazine Stern that the laboratory equipment could be used to make nuclear weapons.
    --"Sale to Pakistan Questioned," Washington Post, 1 July 1981, First Section, Around the World, A20; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  9. #29
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    2 July 1981
    Pakistan is planning to spend $56 million on a number of projects for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) for the current fiscal year that began on July 1. According to the Public Sector Development Plan, the funds are allocated mainly for a reprocessing plant, a nuclear power plant, detailed exploration for uranium and, for phase two of a radioactive minerals survey. The plan allocates $40 million for the reprocessing plant and $10 million for the second nuclear power plant. The budget document indicates that last year's funds for the reprocessing plant are lying unused. The work on the second nuclear power plant is 3% complete and is expected to gather momentum during this year. The budget plan indicates that $59 million will be allotted for the nuclear power plant for the next fiscal year. The total cost of the nuclear power plant is now revised to $910 million, from the original estimate of $527 million. According to a plan approved by the government in 1976, the first nuclear power plant was planned to be commissioned by 1982. The first nuclear power plant could not be commissioned owing to financial constraints.
    --"Pakistan Plans to Spend $56 million during the Current Fiscal Year," Nucleonics Week, 2 July 1981, Vol. 22, No. 26, Pg. 5; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1981
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson denies that Pakistan has received any electronic equipment from Turkey. The spokesperson points out that US news reports indicating Pakistan's development of nuclear weapons are unfounded and insists that Pakistan's nuclear program is aimed for peaceful purposes. The spokesperson also points out that the Turkish government has denied the news reports.
    --"Pakistan Denies Developing Nuclear Weapons," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 3 July 1981; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1981
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq orders tight security measures to guard Pakistan's nuclear installations following Israel's air-strikes against Iraq's nuclear reactor. The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Munir Ahmad Khan, says that the steps are taken to guard against possible subversive activities and sabotage attempts on Pakistani nuclear projects. Mr. Khan also states that any outside attacks on Pakistan's nuclear installations will be successfully thwarted. Mr. Khan does not provide information on the security measures that have been initiated.
    --United Press International, 3 July 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 July 1981
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic energy Commission (PAEC), Munir Ahmad Khan, says that nations should develop breeder reactors to avoid future shortage of uranium and future escalation in uranium prices. Mr. Khan tells the participants of a conference organized under the PAEC that "if we go on building light water reactors, we will soon feel the pinch, because uranium would not be available at cheap prices after a decade." According to Mr. Khan, a feasibility study for a 600-MW nuclear power plant at Chashma has been completed and the plant is expected to be commissioned by 1988. Mr. Khan also informs that eight other plants will be built at the site in Chashma. Mr. Khan says that development of nuclear power will help Pakistan to reduce the huge costs associated with importing oil for its energy needs. Mr. Khan warns that transfer of technology is becoming a political issue and says that developing nations will not find it way to obtain technology from other developed countries.
    --"The Pakistan AEC Chairman said Breeder Development is Necessary," Nucleonics Week, 9 July 1981, Vol. 22, No. 27, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 July 1981
    The German engineering firm Ces Kalthof is facing charges of violating West German Foreign Trade Act by shipping a plant capable of producing uranium-hexafluoride to Pakistan. In responding to a Parliamentary question, the German government says that the delivery of the plant required an export license which would not have been granted by the government. The question regarding the deal is raised in the parliament after a German magazine Der Stern announces that it possesses contracts and other documents regarding the deals between the German firm and a Pakistani textile company. A spokesperson for the German Economics Ministry says that German authorities have collected enough evidence to charge the German firm with violating the German Foreign Trade Act. The spokesperson says that investigations were being carried out since early 1981 long before the firm's activities were published in the German magazine Der Stern. The outcome of the investigation will determine if the firm will be tried in a court or be handled by tax authorities.
    --"German Firm Cited in Case Involving Sale of Fluoride Conversion Plant to Pakistan," Nuclear Fuel, 20 July 1981, Vol. 6, No. 15, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 July 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    9 August 1981
    Libya's Secretary for Foreign Affairs Dr Ali Abd as-Salam ai-Turayki calls for assisting Pakistan's nuclear program or the nuclear program of any other Arab or Islamic country since it will benefit the common cause of Islamic nations. Mr. Turayki, in a statement to the paper Al-Khalij, states that assisting the efforts of Pakistan or any other Islamic nation in producing an atomic bomb will aid the Palestinian cause.
    --"In Brief: General; Turayki's Remarks about an Islamic Nuclear Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 11 August 1981, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, A. The Middle East, ME/6798/A/11; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 11 August 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 August 1981
    A radio report from Qatar reporting a meeting between Libya's Foreign Liaison Secretary Turayki and the Qatar Finance and Oil Minister announces that Dr. Turayki has denied calling for the production of an Islamic bomb. According to the report, Dr. Turayki also insists on the peaceful nature of Libya's nuclear energy program.
    --"Libya and the Islamic Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 12 August 1981, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, IV(A) - The Middle East, ME/6799/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 12 August 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  10. #30
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    6 September 1981
    Western sources indicate that Pakistan's uranium enrichment plant, located 30 miles southeast of Islamabad at Kahuta, is expected to start operating by the end of this year. The plant uses gas centrifuge technology allegedly stolen from the Netherlands.
    --Manchester Guardian Weekly, 6 September 1981, The Week, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 6 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    15 September 1981
    The government of Pakistan formally accepts a six-year $3.2 billion military and economic assistance package offered by the United States. Pakistan accepts the offer after the United States proposes a plan for the speedy delivery of the F-16 fighter aircraft. The F-16 fighter aircraft offer is not part of the $3.2 billion economic and military assistance package. Pakistan agrees to pay $1.1 billion in cash for the 40 F-16 fighter aircraft. Saudi Arabia promises to assist Pakistan in paying for the planes.
    --Bernard Gwertzman, "Pakistan Agrees to a US Aid Plan and F-16 Delivery," New York Times, 16 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 September 1981
    US Under-Secretary of State James Buckley, in his testimony to the three panels of the House Foreign Affairs Committee, urges the Congress to remove a ban on aid to Pakistan in order to proceed with the six-year $3.2 billion aid package. Buckley says that Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq has categorically assured the United States that Pakistan does not intend to acquire nuclear weapons. Buckley, however, states that "I do believe that they have the present intention of moving forward with their nuclear development program. It could very well lead to the development of the so-called nuclear option." Nonetheless, Pakistani leaders are aware that conducting any nuclear test will lead to the cancellation of the aid package. In this regard, Buckley refuses to clearly state that the United States will cut off aid if Pakistan explodes a nuclear device. The Director of the Defense Security Assistance Agency Erich F. von Marbod says that the nuclear capabilities of the F-16s will be removed before their shipment to Pakistan. Marbod says that "All wiring to the pylons, all computer software programs that manage the hardware stores and all cockpit controls that are nuclear related" will be removed from the aircraft prior to the delivery. Marbod further states that the defense department can furnish written assurances that the equipment to provide nuclear capability will not be provided to Pakistan in the future.
    --Juan J. Walte, United press International, 17 September 1981, Washington News; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Bernard Gwertzman, "Pakistan Blast Could End Aid," New York Times, 17 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "US will Sell Pakistanis F-16s Attack Helicopters," Aviation Week & Space Technology, 21 September 1981, Pg. 23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 September 1981
    The Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Sigvard Eklund, in a private meeting with the 34 member IAEA Board of Governors, indicates that existing safeguards mechanisms at the KANUPP facility are not adequate to ensure effective surveillance of the facility. Eklund informs the board that the existing IAEA inspections cannot certify that diversions have not occurred at the KANUPP facility due to Pakistan's ability to produce its own nuclear fuel. Currently, IAEA inspectors visit the facility once every month. Eklund promises a report on the issue in two months.
    --Judith Miller, "US Aides Studying Pakistani Reactor," New York Times, 30 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; "IAEA is Facing Major Problems in Safeguarding Pakistan's KANUPP Power," Nucleonics Week, 8 October 1981, Vol. 22, No. 40, Pg. 6; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 September 1981
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq reiterates that Pakistan will not produce or acquire a nuclear bomb. However, he states that Pakistan will not surrender its right to possess nuclear technology.
    --"American Arms to Pakistan: "A Test of US Credibility," US News and World Report, 21 September 1981, Pg. 45; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Fourth Week of September
    US Administration officials inform the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Chairman of the Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Charles H. Percy (R-Il) about Pakistan's development of indigenous nuclear fuel and IAEA's reservations about the adequacy of the existing safeguards mechanisms.
    --Judith Miller, "US Aides Studying Pakistani Reactor," New York Times, 30 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 September 1981
    A western nuclear source reveals that 12 Spanish engineers are under a one-year contract to design a 900 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma in the Mianwali district of Punjab. International tenders were invited for the contract but US firms were not allowed to participate since they were considered unreliable. According to a Spanish source, quoted by a western source, Saudi Arabia is believed to be financing the nuclear plant, which is expected to cost about $1.1 billion. The plant will be constructed and financed over an eight-year period.
    --"Twelve Spanish Engineers are Under a One-Year Contract with Pakistan," Nucleonics Week, 24 September 1981, Vol. 22, No. 38, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  11. #31
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    25 September 1981
    Senator Alan Cranston (D-Ca) charges that the Reagan administration withheld information on Pakistan's progress towards developing nuclear weapons. Cranston says that Pakistan has started to use domestically produced fuel for its Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor and states that Pakistan can now produce weapons-grade plutonium without being detected by international monitors. According to Cranston, Pakistan's fuel fabrication plant is not under international safeguards. According to Sigvard Eklund, Director General of the IAEA, Pakistan's use of indigenous nuclear fuel will make effective surveillance "impossible" to achieve. Cranston indicates that his information has been verified with three executive branch entities. US Senate aides also suggest that Pakistan only needs to develop a warhead capability. The director of the US State Department's Intelligence and Research Bureau confirms that Pakistan is manufacturing nuclear fuel at the Canadian-supplied Karachi reactor, but indicates that he does not know why Congress was not informed by the Reagan administration. Spiers adds that the IAEA did not find any safeguards violations in Pakistan and that all nuclear materials have been accounted by the IAEA. Senator Charles H. Percy (R-Il) indicates that he was informed recently by the Administration about Pakistan's ability to produce its own fuel. Senator John Glenn (D-OH) states that he will introduce three amendments to strengthen US nonproliferation laws. According to Sen. Glenn, one of the amendments would require a cut-off of aid, without a presidential waiver, to India and Pakistan in case either of the countries detonates a nuclear device.
    --Bill Peterson, "Senator Alleges White House Held Crucial Pakistan Data," Washington Post, 26 September 1981, First Section, A14; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 September 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Judith Miller, "Pakistanis said to Produce Own Reactor Fuel," New York Times, 26 September 1981, Section 1, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1981
    US government's arms control and intelligence officials along with International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors are closely examining Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Reactor (KANUPP) reactor to comprehend "suspicious" activities at the reactor facility. Over the past several months, a series of "anomalies" and "irregularities" at the facility, including a high rate of failure of the surveillance equipment and problems in the accounting procedures for the spent fuel, has led to calls from the IAEA to improve the safeguards at the facility. According to Congressional and US arms control officials, the IAEA's concerns arise from the fact that Pakistan can produce its own nuclear fuel for the KANUPP reactor. The design of the Canadian supplied Canadian Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor facilitates loading and unloading of the fuel rods without shutting down the entire reactor. As a result, Pakistan can easily divert the fuel from the reactor in the absence of stringent inspections. IAEA officials, after monitoring the installation of 75 bundles of domestically produced fuel bundles, became convinced that additional surveillance is needed to ensure that fuel is not diverted from the reactor or the cooling ponds. The KANUPP reactor can hold about 2,000 fuel rods. IAEA Director-General Sigvard Eklund urged Pakistan to install surveillance equipment at two additional locations. Pakistan, however, has refused to negotiate any improved safeguards for the KANUPP facility indicating that such a measure would amount to a virtual renegotiation of the original contract with Canada. Even though Pakistan is not a signatory to the NPT, Canada insisted on implementing safeguards for the supply of the KANUPP reactor. The irregularities at the KANUPP facility lead to speculation among US and IAEA officials that Pakistan is diverting fuel for non-peaceful purposes. US officials, however, point to a lack of definite proof of such diversion. The IAEA's doubts over the facility have led US officials to increase their efforts to gather information on the facility through intelligence channels.
    --Judith Miller, "US Aides Studying Pakistani Reactor," New York Times, 30 September 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 September 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1981
    The three Canadian men, caught while exporting electronic equipment to Pakistan, face charges in a Quebec criminal court. After two weeks of closed hearings, the case is adjourned till January 18 1982. Eleven of those charges are for exporting goods without a license and 14 of the charges are for exporting goods from the United States without adding value. Canadian sources indicate that the case took a long time to reach this stage since the documents found in the Serabit offices were in Punjabi and had to be translated into English. The firm Serabit is owned by Salam Elmenyawi, one of the three Canadians caught last year.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  12. #32
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    8 October 1981
    A well-informed source reveals that Pakistan will accept bids for a 600-900 MW nuclear power plant at the Chashma site in the first half of 1982. Sener, a Spanish firm based in Bilbao, Spain is currently conducting a study of the existing light water reactors (LWRs) for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC). The Spanish firm Sener is either preparing report for a 600 or a 900 MW reactor and for whether a turnkey or NSSS-only solicitation of bids. According to sources, Sener will probably manage the procurement of a nuclear unit for Pakistan even though the firm will not purchase components for the nuclear unit in foreign countries and re-route them to Pakistan. A source indicates that relations between Sener and the Pakistanis is "clean" and indicates that the firm is very much aware of Pakistan's controversial nuclear program.
    --"Pakistan Could be ready to Accept Bids for a," Nucleonics Week, 8 October 1981, Vol. 22, No. 40, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis

    12 - 13 October 1981
    International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) inspectors visit the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) and request to move the two surveillance cameras. The inspectors also request Pakistan to install "bundle counters" to ensure better surveillance of the facility. Pakistan refuses to comply with the demands.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 October 1981
    Contrary to the statements issued by the Reagan administration officials, Western diplomats and other informed sources indicate that Pakistan is moving forward with its nuclear program and is likely to explode a nuclear device in the near future. A Western diplomatic source indicated that Pakistan currently does not possess the capability to explode a nuclear device but could manage to acquire such a capability in two years.
    --Walter W. Miller, "Pakistan Pushing Ahead with Nuclear Program," United Press International, 21 October 1981, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 October 1981
    The Senate adopts by voice votes two amendments to the Foreign Aid Bill. Both the amendments are introduced by Senator John Glenn (D-OH). The first amendment requires an annual report from the president on Pakistan's nuclear activity as a condition for the renewal of the aid program. The second amendment places a limit on any waiver extended to Pakistan to a period of six years. A third amendment to be introduced by Senator Glenn tomorrow requires an immediate termination of aid to Pakistan if it conducts a nuclear test.
    --Barbara Crossette, "Strings are Attached by Senators to Aid going to Pakistanis," New York Times, 21 October 1981, Section A, Pg. 9, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 October 1981
    The Senate approves an amendment introduced by Senator John Glenn (D-OH) by a vote of 51-45. The Glenn amendment requires suspension of foreign aid to Pakistan or India if they conduct a nuclear test. Later, Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC) introduces an amendment that requires the US government to cut off aid to any non-nuclear country that conducts a nuclear test and Sen. Helms' amendment is passed by a voice vote. The Helms amendment affects US allies like Israel, Taiwan, and South Africa.
    --William Chapman, "Senate Bars Aid to New Members of Nuclear Club; Senate would Link Aid to Nonproliferation," Washington Post, 22 October 1981, First Section, A1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    22 October 1981
    The Senate adopts the 1982 Foreign Assistance Bill by a 40-33 vote. The $5.7 billion package includes a $3.2 billion aid package to Pakistan. The aid to Pakistan is provided by waiving the Symington Amendment to the 1961 Foreign Assistance Act that requires a presidential certification that a nation with nuclear facilities is not producing nuclear weapons. The Reagan administration requested the Senate to waive the Symington amendment for Pakistan since President Reagan was not able to provide the necessary certification.
    --Barbara Crossette, 'Senate Ties Aid to Atom Arms," New York Times, 22 October 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 2, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 22 October 1981, http://www.lexisnexis.com; Barbara Crosette, "Senate Approves '82 Foreign Assistance Bill, 40-33," New York Times, 23 October 1981, Section A, Pg. 9, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 October 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    31 October 1981
    A 5,000 lb shipment of zirconium metal worth $153, 000 is seized at the Kennedy International Airport prior to its loading onto a passenger plane. Zirconium is used in construction of nuclear reactors and its export requires an export license. The zirconium shipment is labeled as mountain-climbing equipment and the passenger accompanying the shipment is Dr. Sarfaz Mir, a retired Pakistani Army officer, and is believed to be a close friend of Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq. After the seizure of the shipment, US Customs officials search the Pakistan Airlines flight to locate Dr. Mir but are unable to locate him. The Assistant General Manager of Pakistan Airlines says that he will investigate the issue. Agents from the compliance division of the Commerce Department's Office of Export Administration, headed by Sharon R. Connelly, had tracked the shipment from its production plant in Oregon to the Kennedy Airport. Pakistan Airlines officials are questioned about the shipment since it was too heavy to be classified as check-in baggage.
    --Leslie Maitland, "US Studying Foiled Bid to Export a Key Reactor Metal to Pakistan," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Metropolitan Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  13. #33
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    10 November 1981
    Pakistan's Ambassador to the United Nations Niaz A. Naik says that operations at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant's (KANUPP) maintenance area for the fueling machine cannot be upset by having extra surveillance. The Ambassador, however, objects to the installation of an extra camera at the spent fuel bay.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 November 1981
    The Senate Foreign Relations Committee votes 10-7 to approve the sale of F-16 warplanes to Pakistan. Similarly, two House Foreign Subcommittees voted 10-5 to approve the sale. Under-Secretary of State James L. Buckley, in his testimony, says that the cancellation of the sale of F-16s to Pakistan will severely affect improvement of relations between Pakistan and the United States. Under-Secretary Buckley also says that the United States will continue its efforts to halt Pakistan's nuclear program by stopping the sale of nuclear equipment and technology by nuclear-supplier countries. Under-Secretary Buckley opposed the Senate amendment that called for suspension of aid to Pakistan if it exploded a nuclear device. Under-Secretary Buckley said that "It is difficult to see how the United States could go forward with an assistance program for Pakistan under such circumstances." A senior State Department official says that Pakistan needs more than a year to acquire the nuclear materials to conduct a nuclear test.
    --Don Oberdorfer, "Votes Stall Effort to Block Sale; Hill Panels back F16s for Pakistan," Washington Post, 18 November 1981, First Section, World/National News, A28; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 November 1981
    The House Foreign Affairs Committee rejects a resolution opposing the sale of 40 F-16 aircraft to Pakistan. The voting session resulted in a 13-13 tie, which is considered a defeat under Congressional rules.
    --Barbara Crossette, "Pakistan Jet Deal backed by Panel," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    21 November 1981
    The Commerce Department rules that the Manhattan-based exporter Albert A. Goldberg and the Pakistani company S.J. Enterprises cannot export goods until the charges against them involving the shipment of zirconium are resolved. Mr. Goldberg and several of his companies are charged with violating export regulations by attempting to export zirconium to Pakistan. The Pakistani company S.J. Enterprises is penalized for attempting to procure zirconium in the United States and export the metal to Pakistan. The shipment of zirconium was seized by US officials at the Kennedy Airport on October 31.
    --"Charges made in Export Case," New York Times, 21 November 1981, Section 2, Pg. 30, Col. 5, Metropolitan Desk; Leslie Maitland, in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 November 1981
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq, when asked to comment on reports on Pakistan's efforts to build an Islamic bomb, says that "we are proud to say that Pakistan can make the bomb ... they think that if we lay our hands on this toy we might use it irresponsibly." President Haq comments that developing countries need to possess nuclear technology and he says that Pakistan is determined to acquire nuclear technology.
    --"Other Reports on Korea; Turkish Leader's Visit to Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 26 November 1981, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6890/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    25 November 1981
    A Pakistani official statement issued in Islamabad states that President Zia ul-Haq's answer to a question on the Islamic bomb has been misinterpreted by several foreign media organizations. The statement clarifies that the President's statement that Pakistan has the right to acquire nuclear technology has been misinterpreted as indicating that Pakistan intends to make an atomic bomb. The statement says that the President was responding to a question on published reports about the Islamic bomb; and had categorized such reports as propaganda spread by hostile powers.
    --"Turkish Leader's Visit to Pakistan; Pakistan Denies it Intends to make Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 27 November 1981, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/6891/A4/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 27 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    November 1981
    US officials investigate the seizure of a shipment of zirconium metal at Kennedy Airport. The exporter of the shipment is Albert A. Goldberg of the Manhattan-based National Tronics Company. The shipment is bought by Dr. Sarfaz Mir, a retired Pakistani Army officer who owns a firm S.J. Enterprises in Pakistan. The zirconium metal is manufactured by Oregon-based Teledyne Wah Chang. The Commerce Department, the Customs Services, and the office of Edward R. Korman, US Attorney for the Eastern District of New York are investigating the specific roles of Mr. Goldberg and Dr. Mir. Mir is believed to have left the United States after US Customs officials failed to find him on the Pakistan Airlines flight when the shipment was captured. Mr. Goldberg did not apply for an export license for the shipment and states that he is not aware of such a procedure for shipping the metal. Mr. Goldberg says that the shipment was ordered by the Government of Pakistan through Dr. Mir. Mr. Goldberg says that he has previously shipped electrical capacitors to the Pakistani government after acquiring the necessary export clearances. Sharon R. Connelly, head of the compliance division of the Commerce Department's Office of Export Administration, comments that a license to export zirconium to Pakistan would have been rejected since Pakistan is not qualified to obtain such material. US authorities are deciding on presenting the issue to a Federal grand jury or to deal with the issue within the Commerce Department which might lead to the imposition of civil sanctions including fines and withdrawal of exporting rights. Mr. Goldberg has been penalized twice before for irregularities in exporting controlled items and had his export right revoked for three years in 1976. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission states that 50,000 lbs of zirconium is needed for a reactor and states that the 5,000 lbs of zirconium is not sufficient for a reactor. Dr. Charles Till, Associate Director for reactor research and development at the Argonne National Laboratory, says that zirconium is used to make tubes for holding uranium fuel. James Barrett, spokesperson for Teledyne Wah Chang, indicates that zirconium is used in several applications including aircraft and submarines. James Benham, a lawyer for Teledyne Wah Chang, refuses to comment on reports that Teledyne Wah Chang had alerted the Commerce Department about the zirconium shipment.
    --Leslie Maitland, "US Studying Foiled Bid to Export a Key Reactor Metal to Pakistan," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Metropolitan Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  14. #34
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    November 1980
    The Commissioner of Customs William von Raab announces the start of Operation Exodus. The operation is designed to control the flow of illegal technology from the United States. Raab says that teams of customs agents, inspectors, and patrol officers are being trained on the mission's objective.
    --Leslie Maitland, "US Studying Foiled Bid to Export a Key Reactor Metal to Pakistan," New York Times, 20 November 1981, Section A, Pg. 1, Col. 1, Metropolitan Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 November 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 December 1981
    Israeli sources indicate that the Kahuta enrichment plant in Pakistan is operating with 1,000 spinning metal "cascades" or cylinders. The United States and other sources, however, believe that Pakistan's enrichment effort to be less advanced and point out to the long periods of time needed by West Germany, the Netherlands, and Britain to master the enrichment technology. A well-placed Indian diplomat reveals that "we have evidence of short burns at KANUPP now." Ever since Pakistan announced in September 1980 that it could produce nuclear fuel indigenously, arms control officials have feared that Pakistan can use its own fuel, irradiate it for a short period of time in the Canadian supplied Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor, withdraw it, and reprocess the spent fuel rods to extract plutonium. Dr Munir Ahmad Khan of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) however, denies any such short irradiation of fuel rods.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1981
    According to latest Western intelligence estimates, Pakistan can conduct a nuclear explosion by the end of next year. Earlier reports that Pakistan will conduct a nuclear test in fall 1981 are now considered premature. Pakistan is considered to be two years from conducting a nuclear test and report suggest that the nuclear program has run into unexpected technical problems.
    --Stuart Auerbach, "US Aid as Deterrent; Potential seen for Pakistan A-Blast by '82," Washington Post, 8 December 1981, First Section, A17; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 December 1981
    The House Foreign Affairs Committee votes to provide Congress with greater powers to reject aid to countries believed to be developing nuclear weapons. An amendment to the foreign aid authorization bill, sponsored by Rep. Stephen J. Solarz (D-NY) would allow the Congress to override a Presidential waiver to the Symington amendment by a concurrent resolution that only requires simple majorities. The proposed amendment cannot be cancelled by a presidential veto.
    --William Chapman, "Reagan, Haig ask Bipartisan Support on Foreign Aid," Washington Post, 9 December 1981, First Section, A10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 December 1981
    The House-Senate conference approves the $11.4 billion foreign aid bill. The bill includes $100 million in economic assistance to Pakistan. The aid is permissible after a waiver of the required Presidential assurance that Pakistan is not participating in the transfer or receipt of a nuclear device, or a detonation of a nuclear device. The Presidential waiver expires after 30 days, after which the Congressional action is needed to extend it further. A second waiver allowing the President to declare that Pakistan is not involved in the receipt or transfer of equipment for uranium enrichment is subject to Congressional veto by both Houses.
    --Martin Tolchin, "House-Senate Conferees Approve Foreign Aid Bill," New York Times, 15 December 1981, Section A, Pg. 29, Col. 1, National Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 December 1981
    Speaking at his first press conference, the new Director-General of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Hans Blix says that some positive developments can be expected with regard to negotiations for increasing the safeguards mechanisms at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) in Pakistan. Director-General Blix says that "The negotiations with Pakistan are continuing, but it is just one of several countries we would like to see improvements in."
    --Lynne Reaves, "The new Director General of the IAEA says all Member Nations Must," Nucleonics Week, 17 December 1981, Vol. 22, No. 50, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    27 December 1981 - 2 January 1982
    Saudi Arabia's Minister of petroleum & Mineral Wealth Ahmad Zaki Yamani visits Pakistan. During the visit, Pakistan discusses the financing of a 600 MW nuclear power plant with Mr. Yamani. A two-day hunting trip by Yamani to Kalabagh, close to the proposed site for the nuclear power plant raises doubts that he visited the nuclear power plant now under construction. At the conclusion of the trip, Yamani promises that Saudi Arabia will finance any energy related projects in Pakistan.
    --"There are String Indications that Pakistan, Facing the Worst Power Shortage," Nucleonics Week, 14 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 2, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981 - January 1982
    Pakistan agrees to implement certain additional surveillance measures requested by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) at its Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. Pakistan agrees to the relocation of some cameras at the facility. However, Pakistan refuses to install additional equipment at the facility, especially bundle counters. The bundle counters can be used to track the flow of fuel bundles in and out of the reactor. Recently, the IAEA has indicated its inability to verify the number of bundles at the plant.
    --"Pakistan has Agreed to some Upgraded Safeguards Measures, but the Larger," Nucleonics Week, 7 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 1, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 7 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981
    Pakistan concedes to certain demands made by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regarding surveillance at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). Pakistan agrees to the application of silica gel treatment on the surveillance cameras in order to enable them to withstand the high heat and humidity at Paradise Point (the location of the KANUPP facility). Pakistan also agrees to install extra dosimeters that are used to measure gamma radiation and installs a closed-circuit video camera system surrounding the spent-fuel bay. In addition, it also agrees to allow more number of inspections. Pakistan, however, has only agreed to talk regarding IAEA's other key demands, namely, installing extra 8mm cameras, relocating cameras to different positions, installing bundle counters, and increased number of inspections. Pakistan still insists that developed film from the surveillance cameras will not be allowed to be taken out of the country for fear of revealing industrial secrets. Pakistan also indicates that spent fuel rods will not be arranged according to the IAEA's demands. Pakistan says that the issue of bundle counters will be analyzed "in the light of our agreements with the agency [IAEA]."
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981
    Western sources believe that Pakistan is using the Fauji chain of nonprofit import enterprises to clandestinely buy sensitive nuclear equipment from foreign countries.
    --David K. Willis, "On the Trail of the A-Bomb Makers; Antinuclear battle Nears Climax," Christian Science Monitor (Boston), 1 December 1981, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 December 1981, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    December 1981
    The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) prepares an analysis titled 'Special National Intelligence Estimate 31-81" and concludes that Pakistan will possess the ability to test a nuclear device within the next three years. The analysis describes that Pakistan is partly deterred from conducting a nuclear test by President Reagan's military and economic package which will be withdrawn once Pakistan tests a nuclear device. The analysis predicts that Pakistan will not stop its efforts to develop and stockpile fissile material for a nuclear device. Such efforts by Pakistan, according to the report, will increase the risk of a pre-emptive strike by India against Pakistan's nuclear installations.
    --Judith Miller, "US Says Pakistan's Nuclear Potential is Growing," New York Times, 24 January 1982, Section 1, part 1, Pg. 6, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  15. #35
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    First Two Weeks of January 1982
    Owing to acute power shortages, Pakistan is likely to invite bids for the construction of a 600 MW nuclear power plant in the next fiscal year that begins in July. Apart from contacting Muslim countries, Pakistan is also requesting the World Bank to finance the nuclear power plant. The Pakistani government is expected to discuss the issue with the new World Bank President A.W. Clausen when he visits Pakistan for a week-long visit beginning on January 15. Western sources indicate that World Bank's involvement in Pakistan's nuclear program will help in strengthening the implementation of stringent safeguards, especially at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP). The World Bank usually does not finance nuclear power projects.
    --"There are String Indications that Pakistan, Facing the Worst Power Shortage," Nucleonics Week, 14 January 1982, Vol. 23, No. 2, Pg. 10; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 January 1982
    Pakistan's Foreign Minister Agha Shahi says that Pakistan did not provide any assurance to the United States over its nuclear program in return for the $3.2 billion military and economic aid. Shahi says that Pakistan is aware of the U.S. law that will result in a cut-off of aid to any country that explodes a nuclear device. However, he also states that the Reagan administration might not adopt such a hardline even if Pakistan conducts a nuclear explosion since Pakistan is crucial to U.S. strategic plans in the region. Shahi also elaborates, "we [Pakistan] make a distinction between an explosion and weapons. We do not rule out the possibility of a detonation if it is necessary for our programme."
    --Alain Cass, "Pakistan Denies giving Pledge on N-Testing," Financial Times (London), 15 January 1982, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 January 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq includes a trip to France as part of his European tour. The trip to France is only announced on the eve of his departure. The Pakistani President provides a non-committal answer in response to a question whether Pakistan will discuss the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant with France. A deal between Pakistan and France for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant was cancelled owing to France's decision to back out of the deal in the late 1970s.
    --"Revival of French Nuclear Deal?," Christian Science Monitor, 18 January 1982, The News Briefly, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 January 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq denies that his trip to France will include discussions for the French supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. General Haq further states that Pakistan does not have the intention nor possess the ability to explode a nuclear device. President Haq also states that Pakistan would be "two steps ahead" in implementing international safeguards in its reprocessing plants if other nations also implement the same safeguards mechanisms.
    --"Pakistani Denies he will hold Talks in Paris on Atom Plant," New York Times, 20 January 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    23 January 1982
    The CIA publishes its report 'Special National Intelligence Estimate 31-81" which mentions that Pakistan will be able to explode a nuclear device within the next three years.
    -- Judith Miller, "US Says Pakistan's Nuclear Potential is Growing," New York Times, 24 January 1982, Section 1, part 1, Pg. 6, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 January 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Frank J. Prial, "Pakistani Repeats Nuclear Pledge," New York Times, 26 January 1982, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 January 1982
    Speaking at a news conference after his luncheon meeting with the French President Francois Mitterrand, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq reiterates that Pakistan does not possess the capacity or the intention to produce nuclear weapons. President Haq also states that his discussions with the French president did not include any references to nuclear issues. President Haq also indicates that he did not attempt to renew the French contract for the supply of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant to Pakistan.
    --Frank J. Prial, "Pakistani Repeats Nuclear Pledge," New York Times, 26 January 1982, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 January 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; David Housego, "Pakistan not to build N-Bomb, Zia tells French," Financial Times (London), 26 January 1982, Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 26 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    30 January 1982
    India's Prime Minister Indira Gandhi says that India is willing to sign a friendship treaty with Pakistan and also indicates that India will not object to Pakistan's development of a peaceful nuclear program. Gandhi adds that India is willing to accept Pakistan's promises that its nuclear program will be intended only for peaceful purposes. Commenting on the non-aggression pact put forward by Pakistan, Prime Minister Gandhi states that "pact or no pact, we will never attack Pakistan." Pakistan's Foreign Minister Agha Shahi is in New Delhi to discuss a non-aggression pact with India's Foreign Minister Narasimha Rao. An Indian foreign ministry spokesperson states that "some progress" was made in the first rounds of talks.
    --Richard S. Ehrlich, "Gandhi says India willing to sign Friendship Treaty with Pakistan," United Press International, 30 January 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 30 January 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 February 1982
    Hans Blix, the Director General of the IAEA, says that the agency has not made any progress in its six-month efforts to implement increased surveillance at Pakistan's Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. The IAEA made the request to increase surveillance measures after it detected anomalies and irregularities at the reactor. Blix, however, says that there is no evidence that Pakistan is diverting spent fuel from the reactor. Blix also says that the agency has presented two reports to its Board of Governors indicating that existing surveillance measures are not adequate to provide reliable assurances that Pakistan is not diverting spent fuel from the reactor. IAEA officials privately confirm that Blix will provide a similarly worded report to the Board of Governors during the February 23rd meeting. The Director General also praises the efforts of the Reagan administration to renew economic and military aid to Pakistan.
    --Judith Miller, "UN Aide sees Little to Curb Spread of Atom Arms," New York Times, 18 February 1982, Section A, Pg. 4, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 18 February 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  16. #36
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    18 - 19 February 1982
    IAEA and Pakistani officials hold discussions on increasing the IAEA's monitoring capability at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. The IAEA has been requesting such increased surveillance measures since summer'81.
    --Judith Miller, "US Hails report of Progress on Pakistani Atomic Dispute," New York Times, 3 March 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    26 February 1982
    Hans Blix, the Director General of the IAEA, issues a report indicating that the IAEA had "productive discussions" with Pakistani officials on February 18th and 19th over the issue of implementing increasing surveillance measures at the KANUPP reactor in Karachi. Blix says "Some of these proposals for improvements have already been implemented and I hope that the present discussions will lead to the implementation of the remaining proposals."
    --Judith Miller, "US Hails report of Progress on Pakistani Atomic Dispute," New York Times, 3 March 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 March 1982
    U.S. officials welcome the report by the IAEA Director General as a welcome sign. Archelaus R. Turrentine, acting assistant director for nuclear and weapons control at the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, describes the report as a "positive development." Senator Alan Cranston (D-CA) expresses skepticism and says that "Pakistan remains on the brink of a nuclear test." Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) calls for the safeguards measures to encompass Pakistan's entire nuclear activities.
    -- Judith Miller, "US Hails report of Progress on Pakistani Atomic Dispute," New York Times, 3 March 1982, Section A, Pg. 2, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 March 1982
    In replying to a question regarding Libya's financing of Pakistan's nuclear bomb, Libya's ruler Colonel Qadhafi says "No, it is not true at all, I heard about this propaganda, one of the bad propaganda to defame us." The Libyan ruler was speaking at an interview broadcast by Vienna television.
    --"Qadhafi on the "Pakistan Nuclear Bomb"," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 15 March 1982, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, IV(A) - The Middle East, ME/6978/I; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 March 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March 1982
    Speaking at an Arab conference, Munir Ahmad Khan Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), says that oil-producing nations should acquire nuclear technology to conserve petroleum reserves. Mr. Khan says that some industrialized nations are unwilling to share nuclear technology citing the potential proliferation dangers associated with such transfers. Khan says that implementing international safeguards will contain the dangers associated with such technology transfers. Mr. Khan says that tight controls on the sharing of nuclear technologies and reluctance to provide long-term commitment to supply nuclear fuel and equipment will lead to a further increase in the world's energy problems.
    --"Arab Oil should be used as a Bargaining Tool to get Nuclear Technology," Nucleonics Week, 8 April 1982, Vol. 23, No. 14, Pg. 9; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 April 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Late March - Early April
    The Spanish firm Sener completes its study on the financial and technical aspects for a 900 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma and submits a report to the Pakistani government. Sener suggests building 6 units of approximately 1,000 MW each for the project.
    --Pearl Marshall, "Pakistan hopes LWR Fuel Supply Capability will Stem from 'R&D-Size' Enrichment Plant," Nuclear Fuel, 16 August 1982, Vol. 7, No. 17, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Shahid-ur-Rehman Khan, "Pakistan Issues Plant Tender; Prospective Bidders not Identified," Nucleonics Week, 9 December 1982, Vol. 23, No. 49, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    March - December 1982
    The United States believes that Pakistan is attempting to acquire components that could be used to produce several nuclear bombs. The components sought by Pakistan are identified as finely machined hollow steel spheres measuring approximately 13 inches in diameter, and concave metal plates. Pakistan is believed to have sought these metal spheres from Britain and Argentina. The spheres are important components of an implosion type nuclear device in which uniformly placed explosives compress a sphere of highly-enriched uranium or plutonium to produce a fission reaction. The concave metal plates, known as "driver plates" are attached to the explosive and are used to produce a powerful blast. The shipments of these spheres are stopped using U.S. diplomatic interventions. Pakistan's pursuit of these components forces the U.S. President to send a special envoy, General Vernon Walters, to Pakistan on two occasions. During General Walter's visit to Pakistan in October, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq rejects the report that Pakistan is pursuing the nuclear weapons option.
    --Simon Henderson, "Anxious U.S. could Probe Zia over N-Plans," Financial Times (London), Section 1, Overseas News, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 8 December 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Kim Rogal and William J. Cook, and Jane Whitmore, 'Worries about the Bomb," Newsweek, 20 December 1982, International, Pakistan, Pg. 50; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    11 April 1982
    Pakistan's Finance Minister Ghulam Ishaq Khan says that the construction of the basic services for a second nuclear power plant has been completed at Chashma. Ishaq Khan does not provide information whether the Pakistani government is already conducting negotiations with various firms for the construction of the plant or whether it plans to invite tender bids for the plant. Khan states that Pakistan needs a number of nuclear power plants to address its energy requirements and mentions that the government is currently formulating a comprehensive strategy to construct the needed plants. He discloses that the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) operated at 61% of its capacity using locally produced parts and fuel. The Finance Minister states that "As the position of local fuel, critical materials and spares continues to improve, the plant will operate at a higher capacity." According to calculations by the magazine Nucleonics Week, the KANUPP facility operated at 19.2% of its original capacity.
    --"Approval for a 937 Mw Nuclear Unit at Chashma came Tuesday from Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 15 April 1982, Vol. 23, No. 15, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 April 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  17. #37
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    13 April 1982
    The Executive Committee of the National Economic Council of Pakistan approves the construction of a 937 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma. The project is expected to be completed in mid-1988 and is believed to cost $1.5 billion. The allocation for the project is expected to be made in the next fiscal year that begins in July. The Spanish firm Sener completed a feasibility study for the plant last year and estimated the cost to be $988 million. The estimate was revised this year and the current estimate is not available.
    --"Pakistan to Build Nuclear Power Plant," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 14 April 1982; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 April 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; "Approval for a 937 Mw Nuclear Unit at Chashma came Tuesday from Pakistan's," Nucleonics Week, 15 April 1982, Vol. 23, No. 15, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 April 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 June 1982
    In his address to the UN Disarmament Conference, Pakistan's Foreign Minister Sahabzada Yaqub Khan states that "Pakistan will not develop or acquire nuclear weapons." Yaqub-Khan also states that Pakistan is committed to the creation of a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --John Usher, "Yugoslavia Condemns Soviet-US Rivalry," United press International, 10 June 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Second Week of June 1982
    Addressing a press conference after a meeting of the IAEA Board of Governors, Director General of the IAEA Hans Blix says that "talks" with Pakistan will continue over the issue of increasing the safeguards measures at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) facility. Blix hopes that all the required measures will be agreed to by Pakistan by the time he makes his report to the Board of Governors again in September. He also states that the IAEA and Pakistan differed on the "technical arrangements" for the enhanced safeguards at the KANUPP facility. The IAEA inspections at the KANUPP facility are not part of the NPT, which Pakistan has not signed. The inspections are part of the original sales agreement between Canada and Pakistan for the Canadian supply of a CANDU-type reactor.
    --"IAEA was not in a Position to Perform Adequate Verification," Nucleonics Week, 17 June 1982, Vol. 23, No. 24, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 June 1982
    The IAEA's annual Safeguards Implementation Report for 1981 states that the agency cannot adequately determine whether there was any diversion of nuclear material for military purposes in two countries. The report does not state the two countries, but U.S. nuclear policy officials identify the two nations to be India and Pakistan. The agency report also states that the nuclear material regulated by the agency was not diverted for military use. The IAEA states that negotiations to improve monitoring measures are proceeding well in one case, which is identified as India by U.S. officials. The IAEA does not provide any comment on the status of negotiations with the other country, i.e., Pakistan. The report mentions that four countries with unsafeguarded nuclear facilities possess the capability to produce weapons grade fissile material. The report does not mention the names of the countries, but they are believed to be India, Pakistan, Israel, and South Africa.
    --"International Atomic Agency says it had Inspection Problems in '81," New York Times, 16 June 1982, Section A, Pg. 4, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1982, www.lexis-nexis.com; Richard Johns, "Atomic Energy Agency Warns on Nuclear Material Safeguards," Financial Times (London), 17 June 1982, Section 1, European News, Pg. 3; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    17 June 1982
    The United States attempts to convince the major suppliers of nuclear power plant technology not to supply such technology to Pakistan until Pakistan accepts full-scope IAEA safeguards on its nuclear facilities. Pakistan has decided to build a 850-900 MW nuclear power plant at Chashma and is expected to issue tenders for the plant's construction in a few weeks. Sources indicate that the United States has somewhat succeeded in convincing the major suppliers of nuclear technology to accept its nonproliferation policy but doubts exist whether small licensees will comply with U.S. requests. The United States indicates to major suppliers that supply of nuclear equipment or material to Pakistan will result in a suspension of U.S. nuclear aid.
    --"US Forging United Front to deny Pakistan a Second Nuclear Plant," Nucleonics Week, 17 June 1982, Vol. 23, No. 24, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    24 June 1982
    Pakistan allocates $72 million for the Pakistan Atomic Energy Agency (PAEC) in its national budget for the year 1982-83. A major portion of the allocated amount is for the proposed 850-900 MW light water reactor (LWR) at Chashma in Mianwali district in Punjab. According to the budget document, for the fiscal year'81 ending on June 30, $47 million was spent on a reprocessing plant and on civil work for the Chashma nuclear power plant. Other completed activities included radioactive minerals survey, uranium exploration in Dera Ghazi Khan, and a nuclear power generation training project.
    --"Pakistan's National Budget for 1982-83 Earmarks $72 Million," Nucleonics Week, 24 June 1982, Vol. 23, No. 25, Pg. 8; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 24 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  18. #38
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    24 June 1982
    The U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of Energy for Security Affairs James W. Culpepper informs the House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee that U.S. export control regulations will be tightened following an extensive review of current controls followed by the Departments of State and Energy. The tightening of U.S. export controls follows complaints by Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) that U.S. nuclear exports undermined the U.S. nonproliferation policy. The Deputy Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Export Administration Bo Denysyk agrees that the U.S. Commerce Department has allowed the sale of nuclear technology to countries like Pakistan, South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, and other countries that are suspected of developing nuclear weapons.
    --Judith Miller, 'US to Tighten Atomic Export Rules," New York Times, 25 June 1982, Section D, Pg. 1, Col. 3, Financial Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 June 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    1 July 1982
    The United States is conducting a review of its export control regulations and revising those export control rules. As part of the efforts, a new list is being prepared by the U.S. special trade representative and the Department of Energy that lists five countries that are ineligible to receive nuclear materials and technology for financial and safeguards reasons. The five countries in the list are Pakistan, India, Israel, Argentina, and Kuwait. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is also updating its nuclear export regulations and is expanding its list of nations that are not allowed to receive non-sensitive equipment and nuclear material under a general license. Pakistan, India, Argentina, Israel, and Kuwait are included in the revised NRC list.
    --Sandy Cannon-Brown, "Tightening of US Nuclear Export Controls Looming," Nucleonics Week, 1 July 1982, Vol. 23, No. 26, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 1 July 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    2 July 1982
    The Departments of State and Energy propose to expand the list of nations that would need specific authorization from the Department of Energy and other specific agencies in order to import sensitive technology from U.S. companies. Countries that might be added to the list include Pakistan, India, Brazil, South Africa, Israel, and Argentina.
    --'DOE Moves to Expand List of Nations Needing Special OK for Nuclear Deals," Inside Energy/with Federal Lands, 2 July 1982, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 2 July 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 August 1982
    In an interview, the Director of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Shamim Ahmed Chaudhri hopes that Pakistan will be able to indigenously produce enriched uranium fuel for the proposed 900 MW Chashma nuclear light water reactor (LWR). Chaudhri indicates that it would require Pakistan 20 years to reach that capability. Currently Pakistan is producing nuclear fuel using uranium mined in Bagalchore. Pakistan's actions were necessitated when Canada, the supplier of nuclear fuel for the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP), suspended its nuclear cooperation with Pakistan in December 1976. He also says that the fuel is produced at the Kundian plant located at the Chashma site; but that Pakistan's indigenously produced fuel is going through a testing process and the PAEC is "quite happy" with the results. Pakistan's Water & Power Development Authority develops a plan to build two more 900 MW nuclear power plants and hopes to operate them by 1994 and 1997. Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq emphasizes that the Chashma nuclear plant will be placed under stringent international safeguards. Reiterating that Pakistan possesses the right to acquire the latest nuclear technology, President Haq states that "If the advanced countries are a bit stingy then we will acquire it ourselves ... even if we have to beg, borrow or steal ... And stealing is something we have already been labeled with." Some European countries express interest in the Chashma contract. A Western diplomat in Islamabad says that he would make a strong plea for his government's participation in the project based on Pakistan's energy needs."
    --Pearl Marshall, "Pakistan hopes LWR Fuel Supply Capability will Stem from 'R&D-Size' Enrichment Plant," Nuclear Fuel, 16 August 1982, Vol. 7, No. 17, Pg. 7; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 August 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 August 1982
    The Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) sets September 15 as the deadline for reactor manufacturers to indicate their willingness to submit bids for a 900 MW LWR nuclear power plant at Chashma. A communiqué from PAEC informs the manufacturers that bid documents must be obtained from Islamabad. The timetable presented in the communiqué sets four months for preparing the bid, five months for bid evaluation, and six years for completing the contract from the date of signature of the letter of intent. Bidders are also allowed to propose a second unit that must be completed within 36 months after the completion of the first unit. The communiqué welcomes a number of options for the bidding including a total turnkey package, or nuclear island, or a nuclear steam supply system. All the cases are expected to include fuel supply. The United States is initiating efforts to prevent the reactor manufacturers in other countries to bid for the contract unless Pakistan accepts full-scope safeguards and abandons its efforts to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Pakistan Solicits Vendor Interest in Proposed LWR," Nucleonics Week, 19 August 1982, Vol. 23, No. 33, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 August 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 August 1982
    The U.S. Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental & Scientific Affairs James Malone indicates that one of the factors obstructing the completion of a bilateral nuclear accord between China and the United States is China's relationship with Pakistan regarding nuclear issues. Malone indicates that China supplied Pakistan with material other than fuel-related items. However, he declines to mention the items specifically. Malone also indicates that the United States is making progress in restricting the supply of nuclear components to Pakistan's nuclear facilities.
    --Rob Laufer, "Interview with Malone: Defense Policy and Assessment of 'Hot Spots'," Nucleonics Week, 19 August 1982, Vol. 23, No. 33, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 August 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  19. #39
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    8 September 1982
    U.S. Deputy Energy Secretary W. Kenneth Davis informs a House Foreign Affairs Subcommittee that the Reagan administration plans to create a new list of 63 countries that would need specific U.S. approval to receive any American technology for their nuclear program. U.S. administration officials decline to name the countries in the list until the list is finalized, but sources indicate the list to include Pakistan, India, Brazil, South Africa, Israel, Argentina, Iran, Iraq, Libya, Algeria, and Syria. Davis indicates that the criteria for approving the sale has not been changed, a stand that is criticized by Rep. Jonathan B. Bingham (D-NY) as a shortcoming in the new policy. The new measures are announced by the Reagan administration as efforts to strengthen the 1978 Nuclear Nonproliferation Act. The Assistant Secretary of State James B. Devine indicates at another Subcommittee hearing that a Spanish licensee of Westinghouse Electric Co. would have to obtain a special approval from the Department of Energy to export a reactor to Pakistan. Devine notes that the Spanish firm can provide Pakistan with a Westinghouse Electric Co. reactor without special approval under existing regulations. Some Congressmen expressed concern earlier this year over the sale of a Westinghouse Electric Co. reactor to Pakistan by a Spanish licensee of the U.S. Company.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Administration will List 63 Countries Subject to Nuclear Export Restrictions," Washington Post, 9 September 1982, First Section, A4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    8 September 1982
    The Greek Prime Minister Andreas Papandreou charges that Turkey is building a nuclear bomb in cooperation with Pakistan.
    --"Around the World; Papandreou says Turks Build Nuclear Arms," New York Times, 9 September 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 3, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 9 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 September 1982
    A Turkish foreign ministry spokesperson Nazmi Akiman indicates that Turkey does not wish to build nuclear weapons and rules out any cooperation between Pakistan and Turkey over this issue.
    --"In Brief: General; Turkish Denial of Nuclear Arms Link with Pakistan," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 13 September 1982, Part 4. The Middle East and Africa, C. Greece, Turkey and Cyprus, ME/7129/C/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 13 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    12 September 1982
    A Pakistani foreign ministry spokesperson refutes the claims by the Greek prime minister that Turkey and Pakistan are cooperating to produce a nuclear bomb. The spokesperson states that Pakistan's nuclear program is only intended for peaceful purposes and reiterates that Pakistan does not intend to produce nuclear weapons.
    --"Other Reports; Pakistan denies Greek Charge over Atomic Bomb," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 17 September 1982, Part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 4. The Middle East, FE/7133/A4/2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Third Week of September 1982
    The Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) Munir Ahmad Khan expects that many nuclear reactors manufacturers will participate in the Chashma nuclear power plant project owing to the depressing state of the current nuclear market. Khan states that "there is considerable interest in the Chashma project," and that the United States will find it difficult to prevent firms from participating in the project. One U.S. firm Westinghouse Electric Co. informs Pakistan of its decision to bid for the project, even though doubts exist over the firm's participation since U.S. laws preclude direct participation. In a conference paper delivered at the IAEA, Khan indicates that Pakistan's energy needs necessitate the development of nuclear energy. He also states that Pakistan's nuclear projects needs foreign financing and enhanced personnel development. Khan mentions that the outward flow of skilled personnel from Pakistan to wealthier Middle Eastern nations has adversely affected Pakistan's nuclear power program and outlines a training program developed by the PAEC to build a skilled workforce in all fields of nuclear construction operation and maintenance.
    --Rob Laufer, "While Hesitant to Discuss US Policy, a Top Pakistani Official," Nucleonics Week, 16 September 1982, Vol. 23, No. 37, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 16 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    18 September 1982
    The United States places a hold on bilateral nuclear cooperation with China because of intelligence reports suggesting that China helped Pakistan in its efforts to produce weapons-grade uranium. China is also believed to have provided nuclear aid to South Africa, Argentina, and possibly India. Some U.S. officials believe that China provided assistance to Pakistan in its efforts to enrich uranium.
    --Judith Miller, "US is Holding up Peking Atom Talks," New York Times, 19 September 1982, Section 1, Part 1, Pg. 11, Col. 1, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 19 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


  20. #40
    Administrator Aryan_B's Avatar
    Join Date
    Jun 2012
    Location
    Utopia
    Posts
    14,322
    Thanks
    8763
    Pakistan England
    18 September 1982
    According to a restricted staff report submitted to the IAEA Board of Governors, the IAEA inspections at the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor suffer from two deficiencies. The first is the lack of surveillance equipment at an emergency hatch leading out of the containment and the second is the absence of backup monitors attached to the cameras covering various critical areas of the reactor. The existing surveillance cameras monitor the core exit, the canal between the reactor and the fuel storage pond, and the fuel storage pond. The monitors manage the surveillance cameras' operation and record the images. The IAEA wants to have backup monitors in the plant control room since the existing monitors are susceptible to malfunction. The IAEA wants to have an extra camera at the emergency hatch even though it is difficult to remove the fuel rods using this outlet. Pakistan refuses to accept the demand for the backup monitors as well as an extra surveillance camera. However, the IAEA is not extremely worried about the KANUPP reactor since talks are continuing at a slow pace, if not at a rapid and smooth pace, and importantly, assessment by knowledgeable sources indicate that Pakistan is a long way from diverting enough plutonium for a nuclear bomb. Pakistan's indigenous fuel production capacity is believed to be limited and the sporadic operation of the KANUPP reactor will make it difficult for Pakistan to extract sufficient plutonium for a nuclear bomb.
    --"The Two Primary Deficiencies in IAEA Safeguards at Pakistan's KANUPP," Nucleonics Week, 23 September 1982, Vol. 23, No. 38, Pg. 2; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 23 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    20 September 1982
    The United States bans U.S. companies from selling reactor equipment to Pakistan. However, Westinghouse Electric Co., a U.S. company, plans to build a light water reactor (LWR) for the proposed Chashma nuclear project in Pakistan through its Belgian licensee. A U.S. State Department official indicates that that the government will make efforts to block such a sale. Westinghouse Electric Co. is expected to accept the government's demands.
    --Eric Gelman, "No US Nuclear Help for Pakistan," Newsweek, 20 November 1982, Periscope, Pg. 23; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 20 September 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    September 1982
    U.S. Secretary of State George P. Shultz makes a private request to Western European allies to deny permission for the sale of a new reactor to Pakistan until Pakistan accepts international safeguards on all its nuclear facilities. Shultz's request follows private attempts by Pakistan to invite bids for the new nuclear power project at Chashma.
    --Judith Miller, "Pakistan Seeking 2D Atom Reactor," New York Times, 3 December 1982, Section A, Pg. 6, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 3 December 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 October 1982
    Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq says that he will attempt to revive Canada's nuclear cooperation with Pakistan during his trip to Canada in December. President Haq says that he "would not make an issue" of the supply of nuclear fuel for the KANUPP reactor and indicates that "if they agree to help us in our peaceful power program, it would be welcome." Canada suspended its nuclear cooperation with Pakistan in 1976 following Pakistan's refusal to abandon its efforts to obtain a nuclear reprocessing plant from France. Canada insists that it will renew its nuclear cooperation with Pakistan only after Pakistan signs the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty. A Canadian delegation of investors and businessmen are visiting Pakistan and the team does not include any member from the nuclear industry.
    --"Pakistan is Trying to Revive Nuclear Cooperation with Canada," Nucleonics Week, 14 October 1982, Vol. 23, No. 41, Pg. 4; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 14 October 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 October 1982
    Speaking at a press conference in Beijing, Pakistan's President Zia ul-Haq states that China is not involved in Pakistan's peaceful nuclear energy program. President Haq reiterates that Pakistan's nuclear program is completely indigenous and peaceful in nature.
    --"Pakistan President's Peking Press Conference," BBC Summary of World Broadcasts, 21 October 1982, part 3. The Far East, A. International Affairs, 3. Far Eastern Relations, FE/7162/A3/1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 21 October 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    10 November 1982
    A joint-communiqué issued at the end of Pakistani President Zia ul-Haq's visit to Malaysia reaffirms Malaysia's support for Pakistan's proposal to create a nuclear weapons-free zone in South Asia.
    --"Malaysia and Pakistan Issue Joint Communiqué," Xinhua General Overseas News Service, 10 November 1982; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 10 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    14 November 1982
    U.S. military analysts, quoting a recent U.S. intelligence report, state that 31 nations will be able to produce nuclear weapons by 2000. The report, Defense Guidance, includes Pakistan as one of the countries capable of producing nuclear weapons within 20 years.
    --Richard Holloran, "Spread of Nuclear Arms by 2000 is Seen," New York Times, 15 November 1982, Section A, Pg. 3, Col. 4, Foreign Desk; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 15 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    Third Week of November 1982
    More than 10 nations from the Eastern and Western bloc meet in Vienna to strengthen the export control list relating to gas centrifuge enrichment equipment and materials. The list of items in the expanded list includes centrifuge parts like rotors and scoops, spin-forming, flow-forming, and balancing machines. The list is also expected to include specific materials like ultra-high strength aluminum, maraging steel, and some kinds of carbon fiber. The objective of the current effort is to close the existing loopholes in the Zangger List of 1974 and the London Suppliers Group list of 1978. The gaps in the existing trigger lists were revealed by Pakistan's purchase of centrifuge components in Europe. Sources indicate that Pakistan is still attempting to procure trigger list items almost every week.
    --"Centrifuge Suppliers Meeting Privately to Shore up Trigger List," Nucleonics Week, 25 November 1982, Vol. 23, No. 47, Pg. 1; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 25 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    16 November 1982
    Pakistan agrees to implement most of the additional monitoring mechanisms requested by the IAEA. IAEA Director-General Hans Blix states that Pakistan has already agreed to readjust the cameras that were installed by the agency two months ago and has agreed to install a new "bundle counter" next month to facilitate better monitoring of the insertion and extraction of fuel bundles. Dr. Blix also states that Pakistan has agreed to double the frequency of inspections and let inspectors visit the facility once a month to "service our surveillance equipment, develop the films [and] determine the movements [of equipment]." Blix however indicates that the IAEA has to finalize at least one more issue with Pakistan before the IAEA could give assurances that Pakistan is not diverting plutonium for its weapons program. According to U.S. sources, one issue that the IAEA is discussing with Pakistan is the placement of an inspection seal on an access hatch that could be used to covertly remove material from the containment around the reactor. Currently the "port" is not sealed since it was not part of the original plant design. Dr. Blix indicates that the resolution of the remaining issue will allow him to state in the February IAEA board meeting that "we will soon be in a position to give assurance" over the non-diversion of nuclear material in the Karachi Nuclear Power Plant (KANUPP) reactor. U.S. sources indicate that by February, Pakistan would have obtained enough fissile material for one or two nuclear bombs because Pakistan has been operating the KANUPP reactor at a reduced power level, which according to these sources, is ideal for producing weapons-grade plutonium. U.S. sources estimate that Pakistan would be able to produce 10 to 20 kg of plutonium by February 1983.
    --Milton R. Benjamin, "Handling of Plutonium at Issue; Pakistan backs Atomic Safeguards," Washington Post, 17 November 1982, First Section, World News, General News, A25; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.

    19 November 1982
    Pakistan President Zia ul-Haq states that Pakistan will be willing to accept tougher nuclear inspections if the United States requests such inspections on all countries. President Haq says "but if the pressure is only on Pakistan, then we will resist." President Haq is visiting Canada and the United States in December.
    --Albert E. Kaff, "Zia Criticizes US Nuclear Inspection Demands," United Press International, 20 November 1982, International; in Lexis-Nexis Academic Universe, 17 November 1982, Leading Global Provider – Total Business Solutions | LexisNexis.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Aryan_B For This Useful Post: Razamustafa76


Page 2 of 6 FirstFirst 123456 LastLast

Similar Threads

  1. Pakistan Navy’s ‘Nuclear’ Aspirations
    By Lord Of The Ring in forum Pakistan Strategic Forces
    Replies: 1
    Last Post: 9th July 2012, 13:28
  2. Nuclear de-hyphenation
    By Superkaif in forum Pakistan's Military Industrial Complex
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 2nd July 2012, 11:15
  3. Pakistan Navy’s ‘Nuclear’ Aspirations
    By Aryan_B in forum Pakistan Navy
    Replies: 0
    Last Post: 30th June 2012, 17:53

Bookmarks

Posting Permissions

  • You may not post new threads
  • You may not post replies
  • You may not post attachments
  • You may not edit your posts
  •  
Join us on twitter Follow us on twitter