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  1. #41
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    IMF October World Economic Outlook: China's 2012 GDP is $8.3 Trillion


    The end of the year is only two months away. Today, the IMF released its latest GDP projections. China is expected to hit $8.3 Trillion and it is over 50% of American GDP for 2012!

    References:

    The new global economy - CNNMoney

    List of countries by past and future GDP (nominal) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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    China has 643 billion barrels of oil reserves and 52 trillion cubic meters of gas

    China's 643 billion barrels of oil reserves do not include the oil in the South China Sea, which was discovered and claimed by China 2,000 years ago during the Han Dynasty.

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    China lifts oil, gas resources estimates -paper | Reuters

    "China lifts oil, gas resources estimates -paper
    BEIJING | Tue Oct 9, 2012 5:39am EDT

    Oct 9 (Reuters) - China's geological oil resources were put at 88.1 billion tonnes (643 billion barrels) in 2010, up 15 percent from a survey three years earlier, the China Petrochemical News reported on Tuesday, citing a survey by the Ministry of Land and Resources.

    China, which is the world's second-largest oil consumer, rarely publishes data on its oil resources.

    The survey showed recoverable oil resources were 23.3 billion tonnes, up from 21.2 billion tonnes in 2007.

    Recoverable natural gas resources rose 45 percent to 32 trillion cubic metres (tcm). Total geological natural gas resources were up 49 percent at 52 tcm, the paper said.

    It was not clear how much of the resources might be economic to exploit. Analysts predict China's dependence on imports will continue to grow as demand outstrips supply.

    China's domestic crude oil production rose just 0.3 percent to 203.6 million tonnes in 2011, while natural gas output rose 6.9 percent to 102.53 billion cubic metres.

    Since 2008, the Ministry of Land and Resources had asked oil companies to reassess areas such as Bohai Bay southeast of Beijing, Sichuan province and the Ordos Basin in the Inner Mongolia region for reserves, the paper said without elaborating.

    (1 tonne=7.3 barrels)

    (Reporting by Judy Hua and Chen Aizhu; Editing by Ed Davies)"
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  3. #43
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    Mo Yan wins Nobel Prize in Literature

    October 11, 2012



    The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2012 is awarded to the Chinese writer Mo Yan, "who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary," announced Peter Englund, Permanent Secretary of the Swedish Academy in Stockholm on Thursday.

    Mo Yan, 57, is one of the most celebrated Chinese writers, known for novels including Red Sorghum, the Garlic Ballads and Big Breasts & Wide Hips. "Mo Yan," meaning "don't speak" in Chinese, is a pen name. His real name is Guan Moye.

    "I'm very happy to hear the news," Mo told China News Service after he was informed that he won the Nobel prize. "But I feel this award doesn't mean too much for me. There are many outstanding Chinese writers, whose excellent works could also be recognized by the world."

    Next, Mo Yan added, he would still focus on writing his new book.

    The awarding ceremony will be held on Dec. 10.

    Last year's literature prize went to Swedish poet Tomas Transtromer.

    Alfred Nobel, a Swedish industrialist who invented dynamite, established the Nobel Prizes in his will in 1895. The first awards were handed out six years later.

    The winner will win a medal, a personal diploma and a cash award of 8 million Swedish Kronor (about 1 million U.S. dollars).

    Mo Yan, as a representative of Chinese authors, has based his works on his rich knowledge of the Chinese countryside where he grew up, and his insightful and critical thinking on Chinese history, society and personality, said Cheng Yongxin, who is also a friend of Mo.

    At a bookshop reading in Beijing in January 2010, Mo told readers, "My characters are all very native Chinese, and my language is also imprinted with Chinese characteristics. I think that's why I've got international readership."

    His literary achievements make him a serious competitor for this year’s prize. He has been a popular figure in China’s literary scene since the mid-1980s.

    Most people would find it hard to associate the animalistic spirits in "Red Sorghum" with the mild-mannered and even timid looking Mo Yan.

    Most of Mo Yan’s works are set in his own hometown, Gaomi County, in East China’s Shandong Province. Before the age of 20, he’d never ventured beyond the boundaries of his own county.

    Mo Yan was born in 1955, the fourth child in his family. In his early years, he experienced poverty, hunger and was repressed by a particularly harsh father. All of these things have influenced Mo Yan’s later writings.

    When Mo Yan was 12 years old, he was forced to leave school and graze cattle. To satisfy his thirst for reading, Mo Yan read every single book he could get hold of, even the dictionary.

    When he turned 20, he joined the army and got to see the world beyond his home village. Six years later in 1981, he started his writing career. In 1987, "The Red Sorgum" burst onto China’s literary scene.

    Red Sorghum was successfully filmed in 1987, directed by Zhang Yimou.

    Mo Yan’s other major works include "The Republic of Wine", "Life and Death Are Wearing Me Out", "Sandalwood Death", "Big Breasts and Wide Hips" and more. Mo has won several top Chinese and international prizes including the Mao Dun Prize 2011 for "Frog".

    More than any other Chinese author, Mo Yan is well represented in foreign languages around the world. And with good reason - he’s one of the great novelistic masters of modern Chinese literature, with a long list of ambitious novels to his name. His writing is powerful, visual, and broad, dipping into history, fantasy and absurdity to tell stories of China and its people.

    "Through a mixture of fantasy and reality, historical and social perspectives, Mo Yan has created a world reminiscent in its complexity of those in the writings of William Faulkner and Gabriel García Márquez, at the same time finding a departure point in old Chinese literature and in oral tradition," Nobel Prize website said, "In addition to his novels, Mo Yan has published many short stories and essays on various topics, and despite his social criticism is seen in his homeland as one of the foremost contemporary authors."

    China.org.cn
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    Who has a higher standard of living? Chinese or Serb? Correct answer is Chinese


    According to the latest IMF October World Economic Outlook projection, Chinese have a much higher standard of living (20% higher) than Serbs this year.

    For 2012, the average Chinese has a standard of living that is US $1,000 more than the typical Serb (see red boxes in chart above). For 2013, the average Chinese will have a higher standard of living than a Belarusian (see blue boxes in chart above).

    China's standard of living is skyrocketing year after year. Chinese hard work is rewarded with a sharply increasing standard of living. For example, the average Chinese now eats half as much meat as the average American.

    Life just keeps getting better and better for Chinese.

    References:

    List of countries by past and future GDP (nominal) per capita - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    China now eats twice as much meat as the United States - Telegraph
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    Integrated optical vortices on a chip (w/ Video)

    "Integrated optical vortices on a chip (w/ Video)
    October 18, 2012


    This is an illustration of an array consisting of three identical emitters. The three-dimensional emission pattern is calculated with the use of a dipole-emission–based semianalytical model. Credit: Miss Yue Zhang, based on data from authors of the paper.

    An international research group led by scientists from the University of Bristol and the Universities of Glasgow (UK) and Sun Yat-sen and Fudan in China, have demonstrated integrated arrays of emitters of so call 'optical vortex beams' onto a silicon chip. The work is featured on the cover of the latest issue of Science magazine, published tomorrow.

    [Click hotlink to see embedded video: Integrated optical vortices on a chip (w/ Video)]
    The movie shows rotating spiral interference pattern created by disturbing the phase of a reference beam relative to that of a vortex beam with l=-4. The reference beam is a right hand circularly polarized Gaussian beam. Five arms can be seen clearly in the pattern. Credit: Xinlun Cai, Jianwei Wang, Mark G. Thompson, and Siyuan Yu

    Light beams at the same frequency but with different OAM values can be used to transmit different streams information. Single particles of light (photons) can use these different degrees of twist to represent quantum information, where a single photon can be twisting both clock-wise and anti-clockwise at the same time. Applications are also being developed in using such light for imaging and sensing purposes. For example some molecules are chiral - they look the same under normal optical microscopes until illuminated by optical vortex beams with different degrees or directions of twist.

    Conventionally the generation of such beams relied on bulk optical elements such as plates, lenses, and holograms. These are good for research but can be inconvenient for many applications, in particular where large numbers of such beams are needed at high packing density.

    In contrast, the new emitters invented at Bristol are only a few micrometres in size and thousands of times smaller than conventional elements. They are based on silicon optical waveguides and can be made using standard integrated circuit fabrication technologies.

    Siyuan Yu, Professor of Photonics Information Systems in the Photonics Research Group at the University of Bristol, who led the research, said: "Our microscopic optical vortex devices are so small and compact that silicon micro-chip containing thousands of emitters could be fabricated at very low costs and in high volume.


    "Such integrated devices and systems could open up entirely new applications of optical vortex beams previously unattainable using bulk optics."

    These devices are readily interconnected with each other to form complex and large arrays in photonic integrated circuits, and could be used for applications including communications, sensing and microscopic particle manipulation.

    Dr Mark Thompson, Deputy Director of the Centre for Quantum Photonics at the University of Bristol, added: "Perhaps one of the most exciting applications is the control of twisted light at the single photon level, enabling us to exploit the quantum mechanical properties of optical vortices for future applications in quantum communications and quantum computation."

    More information: Integrated compact optical vortex beam emitters, Xinlun Cai, Jianwei Wang, Michael J. Strain, Benjamin Johnson-Morris, Jiangbo Zhu, Marc Sorel, Jeremy L. O'Brien, Mark G. Thompson, Siyuan Yu, Science, 19 October 2012."
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    Long March 2C Shijian 9 AB Launch - SPACEFLIGHT101

    "China launches Duo of Demonstration Satellites
    October 14, 2012


    [Long March 2C Shijian 9 AB Launch]
    Photo: Xinhua


    Photo: Xinhua

    China has successfully launched their semi-secret and long delayed Shijian-9 Mission on Sunday via their Long March 2C Launch Vehicle taking off from the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center, Shanxi Province, China, at 3:25 UTC. According to officials, the two Shijian 9A and 9B Satellites were successfully delivered to orbit.

    Little is known about the two spacecraft that have been orbited on this flight. The satellites were developed and built by the Shanghai Academy of Spaceflight Technology (SAST) and will be operated by the Chinese Commission of Science and the Technology and Industry for National Defence.

    Both satellites are demonstration spacecraft that host a number of components to be tested in orbit. Shijian means practice - and that is exactly what the two vehicles will be doing. The satellites will demonstrate an electric propulsion system featuring a Xenon Gas Thruster. In addition, the spacecraft will test new and improved stabilization and control platforms, an advanced power generation and storage system, and new thermal control technology. The satellites also carry new Earth Observation technology with imagers in visible and infrared light providing ground solutions of up to 3 meters. Shijian satellites were previously launched in different configurations to demonstrate technologies that are now used by the Chinese space program, but exact details on the types of demonstration payloads are not being released.

    The Long March 2C is a member of the Long March Rocket family and was derived from the DF-5 Ballistic Missile. CZ-2C is a two-stage Rocket standing 39.93 meters tall and it has a diameter of 3.35 meters with a liftoff weight of about 233,000 Kilograms. It is an often used member of China's workhorse launcher family.

    Both Stages of the Long March 2C use Nitrogen Tetroxide and Unsymmetrical Dimethylhydrazine as propellants while an optional third stage in the SMA version of the launcher uses solid propellant. The first stage of the stack is 25.72 meters long and 3.35 meters in diameter with a launch mass of 171,300 Kilograms that includes 162,700 Kilograms of propellants. The first stage of the vehicle is powered by a YF-21B Rocket Engine which consists of a cluster of four YF-20A Engines each providing 750 Kilonewtons of Vacuum Thrust. Liftoff thrust of the CZ-2C is 2,689 Kilonewtons. First stage burn time is 122 seconds.

    The second stage of the launcher is 7.58 meters in length and has the typical 3.35-meter diameter. It has a liftoff mass of 58,000kg holding 54,700kg of propellants. It is powered by a single YF-22 Main Engine and four YF-23 Vernier Thrusters that also consume hypergolic propellants. YF-22 provides a vacuum thrust of 742 Kilonewtons and each YF-23 Vernier has a vacuum thrust of 10.2kN. The second stage has a burn time of 130 seconds for the main engine and 287 for the verniers.

    The SMA Upper Stage is 2.7 meters in diameter and 1.5 meters long. It burns 150 Kilograms of HTPB propellant to provide a thrust of 10.78 Kilonewtons.

    In its standard two stage version, the CZ-2C can carry payloads of 3,850kg to Low Earth Orbit and it has a Sun-Synchronous Capability of 1,400kg. With the optional third stage, that was used for Sunday's Mission, the capability to SSO is increased to 1,900kg.

    After launching at 3:25:05 UTC from Taiyuan, the launcher delivered its two payloads into a 623 by 648-Kilometer Orbit with an inclination of 98 degrees."

    ----------

    China tests advanced technologies on Shijian-9 A/B satellites | China Defense Mashup

    "China tests advanced technologies on Shijian-9 A/B satellites

    2012-10-20 — October 14, the Long March-2C rocket successfully sent Shijian-9 A/B satellites into orbit. And Chinese first new technology test satellite was successfully launched. Shijian-9 A/B satellites is developed by China SpaceEAST Co., Ltd under China Academy of Space Technology(CAST), subordinated to China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation(CASC). The chief architect of the satellite is Zhao Zhiming.

    According to Zhao Zhiming, the Shijian-9 project has a total of 25 technologies trials, each technology is critical for the future development of China’s satellite. In general terms, those technologies are divided into four categories, namely, long life and high reliability technology test, high-precision and high-performance technology test, the domestic component outer-space test and on-orbit formation flight technology.


    Shijian-9 satellite

    Shijian-9 A/B satellite-complex uses tandem structure arrangement, and with the upper stage together looks like a bunch of “candied fruit”. In this launch, Long March-2C rocket has a very special rocket upper stage. First, the upper stage reached the orbit and then was adjusted to another attitude to release A-Star, and then throw away the A-star bracket, and then adjust the other direction to release B-star.

    As the A and B two satellites are to conduct the formation flight tests, it is a high demands in upper stage’s releasing angle and attitude. Neither too close to the collision, nor be too far to lose contact. Meanwhile, the flight speed of orbiting objects about seven kilometers per second, throwing away the satellite bracket which is too close from the satellite will bring the risk of collision. So when the upper stage release the bracket it has to purposely changed at an angle. Those actions require that the upper stage can be flexible to meet the complex conditions.

    From the Rockets ignition to the satellite separated from the rocket, it costs about 3300 seconds, which is longest working time of China’s Long March series of launch vehicles. And the upper stage vehicle has to independently work for more than 2700 seconds. The complexity of upper stage can be imagined.

    It is precisely because of the complexity of the upper stage, which involves several Chinese space tech giants. The attitude control system is developed by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation No. 801 Research Institute, the solid rocket engine developed by the China Aerospace Science and Industry Corporation No. 6 Research Academy and the inertia system by the China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation’s No. 13 Research Institute.

    Shijian-9′s design of the twin-satellite is partly because of sharing testing missions. On the other hand, two satellites will work together to verify the key technologies in-orbit formation flight. In simple terms, in-orbit formation flight is that two satellites in space transferred to the other location information and then follow the strict geometric relationships flight. This technology will be mainly used in three-dimensional earth observation areas to improve remote-sensing observation precision, providing surface elevation information of the target at the same time. This technology has a very wide range of military and civilian space-based remote sensing applications.

    In China’s previous geosynchronous orbit satellites, more than half weight of satellite accounts for the the propellant for north-south pole position maintaining. It severely restricted the satellite payload and life. This time Shijian-9 will carry the experimental verification of the electric propulsion system to reduced to one-tenth of the original propellant weight, which can significantly improve the performance of the satellite. Now, China has multiple geosynchronous satellites in demonstration development to use the electric propulsion system, which is the urgent need of technical validation results of Shijian-9 project.

    In addition, on some of the key components of China’s satellite still depend on importation. Shijian-9 A/B satellite mission will verify a number of much-needed domestic components in orbit performance, to accelerate domestic supply chain construction.

    For example, Shijian-9B satellite’s core control computer is “SoC2008″ chip, independently developed by No. 502 Institute of under China Academy of Space Technology(CAST), has completely independent intellectual property rights. This indicates that China has made a breakthrough and master the SoC system level design, anti-radiation enhance design, fault-tolerant design, highly reliable real-time operating system design and other key technologies to occupy leading position in the world.

    A system on a chip or system on chip (SoC or SOC) is an integrated circuit (IC) that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system into a single chip. It may contain digital, analog, mixed-signal, and often radio-frequency functions—all on a single chip substrate. A typical application is in the area of embedded systems. SoC technology is the inevitable outcome of the development of microelectronic technology to an advanced stage.

    With SoC technology, Chinese aerospace platform is no longer in a situation of continued requirement on foreign chips, but to base on domestic design, production and technological level, and to determine the more reasonable aerospace electronics technology, system architecture, and performance specifications, and make the progressive realization of the high-end chip production’s localization. SoC technology is the key strategic technology to realize core components independence.

    SoC2008 is a high-performance SOC chip oriented for aerospace electronic systems, with low-power and anti-radiation enhancement. It can meet the application needs of all kinds of spaceborne electronic systems. SoC2008 overall performance is equal with products launched in Europe in 2010, reached the international advanced level in the same period. SoC2008 has been applied in CAST100 series small satellite platform’s control computer, long-life star sensor control computer, satellite landing central control unit, space station robotic arm subsystem controller and cargo spacecraft GNC subsystems guidance."
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    Shijian-9 A/B satellites will test China's super-efficient Xenon Ion Engine


    China's new generation of geosynchronous satellites depend on a successful test of the super-efficient Chinese Xenon Ion Engine on the Shijian-9 A/B satellites.

    Long March 2C Shijian 9 AB Launch - SPACEFLIGHT101

    "The satellites will demonstrate an electric propulsion system featuring a Xenon Gas Thruster."

    China tests advanced technologies on Shijian-9 A/B satellites | China Defense Mashup

    "In China’s previous geosynchronous orbit satellites, more than half weight of satellite accounts for the the propellant for north-south pole position maintaining. It severely restricted the satellite payload and life. This time Shijian-9 will carry the experimental verification of the electric propulsion system to reduce to one-tenth of the original propellant weight, which can significantly improve the performance of the satellite. Now, China has multiple geosynchronous satellites in demonstration development to use the electric propulsion system, which is the urgent need of technical validation results of Shijian-9 project."

    ----------

    Citations:

    Ion Engines - NASA

    "Ion Engines are the most exciting new rocket propulsion system since the Chinese invented the rocket about a thousand years ago.

    Most rocket engines use chemical reactions for power. They combine various gases and liquids to form chemical explosions which push the rocket through space. Chemical rocket engines tend to be powerful but have a short lifetime.

    Ion Engines use electric fields instead of chemical reactions. Ion Engines tend to be much less powerful, but they are so efficient, they can last for years before running out of fuel."

    Ion thruster - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    High Power Electric Propulsion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    "The HiPEP thruster differs from earlier ion thrusters because the Xenon ions are produced using a combination of microwave and magnetic fields.


    HiPEP Beam Extraction Test"
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    New York Times: China's Yuan has appreciated 40% against the US Dollar since 2005

    In an article from a few months ago, the New York Times stated:

    "The rise of the renminbi — up 12 percent since June 2010 on an inflation-adjusted basis and 40 percent since 2005 — has helped American companies by effectively reducing the cost of their products in China. In the last two years, American exports to China have risen sharply." Source (second paragraph in article): As China’s Currency Rises, U.S. Keeps Up Its Pressure

    ----------

    Let's examine why the Chinese Yuan has effectively appreciated 40% against the U.S. dollar.

    There are two components to measure the relative appreciation of the Yuan against the Dollar.

    1. The actual exchange rate appreciation. This accounts for 30% (of the total 40%) Yuan appreciation against the U.S. dollar.

    In 2005, the exchange rate was 8.27 Chinese Yuans for one U.S. Dollar. (Source: Renminbi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia)

    In 2012, the exchange rate is 6.248 Chinese Yuans for one U.S. Dollar. (Source: US Dollar: CURRENCY:USD quotes & news - Google Finance)

    The Chinese currency has appreciated 32.42% against the U.S. Dollar in the last seven years.

    Math:

    In 2005, one Yuan was worth 12.09 cents. [1 dollar / 8.27 yuans = 12.09 cents per Yuan]
    In 2012, one Yuan is worth 16.01 cents. [1 dollar / 6.248 yuans = 16.01 cents per Yuan]

    Yuan appreciation = (16.01 cents – 12.09 cents) / 12.09 cents * 100 = 32.42% appreciation vs. U.S. dollar

    2. The other 10% Yuan appreciation against the U.S. dollar came from higher inflation in China. This is harder to explain.

    During the last seven years, a Chinese manufacturer had to pay more Yuans to operate his factory (e.g. equipment cost, wages, and rent for his factory). Since his costs went up in Yuan terms, he has to pay more Yuans for a replacement machine tool and his other expenses. Therefore, the Chinese manufacturer's costs increased by 10% when measured against a peer in the United States.

    The net effect from China's currency appreciation (up 32.42%) and China's higher inflation (up 10%) has raised a Chinese manufacturer's costs by 42.42% against his competitor in the United States.


    Source: On China Currency, Hot Topic in Debate, Truth Is Nuanced

    ----------

    US Treasury: China does not meet currency manipulator definition

    "US Treasury: China does not meet currency manipulator definition
    Xinhua | 2012-05-26

    The US Treasury Department said on Friday that China has not met the standards of a currency manipulator, but it would closely monitor the pace of appreciation of the Chinese yuan or renminbi.

    In its Semi-Annual Report to Congress on International Economic and Exchange Rate Policies, the Treasury highlighted the need for greater exchange rate flexibility, including China and some other major economies.

    The report, which was released on Friday, concluded that China did not meet the standards of a currency manipulator.


    Such a conclusion is based on the fact of the yuan's appreciation against the dollar since June 2010 and the decline in China's current account surplus.

    China has committed itself in the G20 Summit and the China-US Strategic and Economic Dialogue to moving rapidly to a more market-determined exchange rate system, the report said.

    "Since China initiated currency reform in July 2005, the RMB has appreciated 40% bilaterally against the dollar after adjusting for inflation," according to the report.

    The US Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 requires the Treasury to provide reports on whether countries manipulate the rate of exchange between their currency and the United States dollar for purposes of preventing effective balance of payments adjustments or gaining unfair competitive advantage in international trade.

    The Treasury said China's recent move to widen the daily RMB trading band "has the potential to increase exchange rate flexibility."

    It also mentioned the steps China has taken to liberalize its capital account, including by increasing the ability of portfolio investors to invest in Chinese assets.

    However, the Treasury said it would continue to closely monitor the pace of RMB appreciation.

    The report said the US.economy would expand at a moderate pace through the end of 2012. Private forecasters currently expect real GDP to grow by 2.2% in the second quarter of this year, and 2.3% over the four quarters of 2012.

    The government is firmly committed to putting the federal budget on a sustainable path, said the Treasury."
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    China is a technological leader, because it is strong in basic sciences and patents

    https://pubs.acs.org/cen/science/88/8802sci1.html

    "China Ascendant
    Sophie L. Rovner
    January 11, 2010 | Volume 88, Number 2 | pp. 35-37

    Measured by patent applications or journal articles, growth in Chinese scientific output is stupendous


    Rapid Diversification: Chemistry-related patent applications published by the Chinese patent office in 2009 covered a multitude of fields, as shown by this research landscape map. The altitude of a given peak in the landscape represents the number of patents in that particular subject, while the proximity of any two peaks indicates how closely the two subjects are related. Just five years earlier, the analogous map of the research landscape had only one main peak, for pharmaceuticals and medicine. (Photo credit: Chemical Abstract Service)

    No matter how you slice it, China is on a scientific roll.

    This past year, China became the world leader in terms of the number of chemistry patents published on an annual basis, according to Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS), a division of the American Chemical Society.
    And growth in publication of scholarly papers by the country's researchers far outpaces that of other nations, reports Thomson Reuters, a news and information company based in New York City.

    "If China's research growth remains this rapid and substantial, European and North American institutions will want to be part of it," says Jonathan Adams, director of research evaluation at Thomson Reuters. "China no longer depends on links to traditional G-8 partners [Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the U.K., and the U.S.] to help its knowledge development. When Europe and the U.S. visit China they can only do so as equal partners."

    Thomson Reuters released "Global Research Report: China" in November 2009 as the third installment in a series designed to inform policymakers about the changing landscape of the global research base. Reports on India and Brazil were released earlier in the year.

    Those three nations, along with Russia, "are beginning to build on their vast resources and potential in becoming significant players in the world economy," according to the China report, which Adams coauthored. "As their influence becomes felt economically, so their impact also becomes apparent in research and innovation. That impact is changing the world map of research; it creates a new geography of science," with China conceivably at its center.

    But assessing the strength of a nation's science is not a straightforward exercise. China "is a highly competitive society, if not cutthroat," says Zhigang Shuai, deputy secretary-general of the Chinese Chemical Society and a chemistry professor at Tsinghua University, in Beijing. "Everybody is busy doing something. However, it has to be borne in mind that at this stage, China can only be regarded as a big country in chemistry, not yet a strong country. Highly original work is still rare," he adds. "Among the patents and papers, very, very few can be regarded as groundbreaking, or the best, or the first in their fields."

    Nevertheless, Shuai expects growth will continue as individual Chinese researchers increase their average scientific output to the levels of productivity found in developed countries.



    The extraordinary growth in Chinese chemical patenting and publishing is being driven by "the combination of economic development and awareness of the strategic importance of intellectual property protection," according to Sunny Wang, 2009 president of the Tri-State chapter of the Chinese-American Chemical Society.

    The country is moving up the ladder of development from natural-asset-based industries that rely on inexpensive labor and raw materials toward R&D-based industries such as pharmaceuticals and microchips and information-driven businesses and services, adds Wang, who heads the patent search group at the pharmaceutical company Sanofi-Aventis in Bridgewater, N.J.

    The Chinese government's insistence on "political stability and economic development above all other considerations has laid the foundation for long-lasting economic growth and sustained demand for research and innovation," Wang says.

    China, whose economy is surpassed in size only by that of the U.S., is maintaining investment in its R&D sector at nearly 1% of gross domestic product, Thomson Reuters notes. Given the extraordinary expansion in the nation's GDP, that means the average annual growth rate in R&D spending was almost 18% for the decade ending in 2005, according to the company's China report. That's much higher than in nations that are part of the Organization for Economic Cooperation & Development, including the U.S., Japan, and many European countries.

    The chemical enterprise is a beneficiary of that largesse. "The Chinese government appears to be investing a lot of money in chemical research in China, far more than Western governments are," says Matthew Toussant, senior vice president of editorial operations at CAS.

    That investment could generate a huge return for the country. "Chemistry inventions, unlike almost any other invention, can be very lucrative," Toussant explains. "You can manufacture a consumer good like a cell phone," and other manufacturers can create a similar product to compete with it. But a patent on a molecule—such as a compound that treats a disease in a unique way—creates a period of protection during which no one else can sell the molecule for that particular purpose. And for that period, Toussant says, the inventor "can charge whatever the market will bear."

    China is also investing in human resources, in part by welcoming its expats back home. Over the past decade or so, "a large number of well-trained scientists have been coming back from almost every leading group in North America, Japan, and Europe," Shuai says.

    The nation also is benefiting from its emphasis on learning. "In Chinese traditional culture, education is in the center of our value system," Shuai notes. "Kids go to extra school in the evening and on weekends to learn math, music, and English instead of watching TV."


    The number of students studying in Chinese universities has more than quadrupled in the past decade, he adds. And as those students have moved out into the work world, they have gotten busy, as evidenced by the explosion in the nation's patenting activity.

    A significant fraction of that activity involves chemicals. "Chemical patents are a critical component to many industrial processes and scientific realms, including medicine and natural products," Toussant says. "In fact, on average, 35% of new patent invention applications globally involve chemical substances."

    CAS has been mining its databases to track "the phenomenal growth of patent documents in the last decade," says Vice President of Marketing Christine McCue. The number of chemistry-related patent applications published by the U.S. Patent & Trademark Office (PTO) grew 240% in that time, and those published by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) grew 140%. But the number of chemistry-related patent applications published by the patent office in the People's Republic of China—known as the State Intellectual Property Office (SIPO)—increased by more than 1,600% during that same period.

    Altogether, "the pace of growth in applications being disclosed in China is a magnitude greater than in every other developed area of the world," Toussant says.

    As a result, the number of chemistry-related applications published on a monthly basis by China's patent office surpassed the PTO in 2005, WIPO in 2006, and Japan's patent office in 2008, CAS reports.

    Last year was the first in which China recorded an entire year as the number one producer of chemical patents, and CAS projects that China will maintain its number one position for the foreseeable future. Totals for the year stood at about 67,000 for China, 55,000 for WIPO, 52,000 for Japan, and 41,000 for the U.S.

    "This information is attention-getting," McCue observes.

    For years, chemistry-related patent invention applications published by SIPO primarily concerned traditional pharmaceutical research, McCue notes.

    But beginning about five years ago, Chinese patenting activity revealed diversification into several other chemistry-related fields, including genetic engineering, advanced materials such as ceramics, metals and alloys, and petroleum oil engineering.

    Data gathered from the CAS Registry show that these efforts have generated tremendous growth in the creation of new compounds. The number of new chemicals disclosed in Chinese patent applications surged 2,400% to about 71,000 between 1999 and 2009, Toussant notes. References to all compounds—including existing substances, often in the context of describing new uses for those substances—were 6,600% higher in 2009 than in 1998. "This tells you that China is finding new uses for chemical substances that were already disclosed by others and is also creating new compounds," he says.



    Nearly 70% of the chemistry-related patent applications published by SIPO are for inventors within China, "which indicates that Chinese scientists now recognize the importance of monetizing research discoveries," McCue says. Inventors in Japan represent the next largest set of authors of Chinese chemical patents, followed by those in South Korea and the U.S.

    The growth trends revealed by patent data are reflected in China's journal article publication rates. Researchers in the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong were primary authors of just 0.8% of the articles published in the Journal of the American Chemical Society in 1998, according to data obtained via CAS's SciFinder, a research tool for scientific information in journal and patent literature from around the world. A decade later, however, the share of authors in China had grown to 4.6%.

    China's output of journal articles in science as a whole expanded dramatically beginning around the mid-1990s, "commencing a steep upward trajectory that has only increased in recent years," according to the Thomson Reuters report. The findings are drawn from company databases that include data on articles from some 10,500 journals published worldwide.

    Although countries including the U.S., Germany, and Japan have enjoyed only modest growth in publications over the past 10 years, the output of papers with at least one author in China—defined as the People's Republic of China and Hong Kong—surged more than fourfold. Researchers in China published just 20,000 papers in 1998 compared with more than 112,000 a decade later. During that same period, U.S. output rose from 265,000 papers to 340,000, an increase of less than 30%. "By the measure of annual output, China surpassed Japan, the U.K., and Germany in 2006 and now stands second only to the U.S.A.," according to the report.

    China's largest share of world publications is in materials science, with papers by its authors accounting for 20.8% of output over the five years ending in 2008. That figure compares with a 12.2% share during the prior five-year period.

    The country's second-largest share of world publications is in chemistry, a field in which its authors helped produce 16.9% of papers in 2004–08 versus 9.3% in 1999–2003.
    "China no longer depends on links to traditional G-8 partners to help its knowledge development."

    The "investment in materials and related physical sciences and technology will provide China with a strong innovation platform" to modernize its heavy industry and primary manufacturing, the report states.



    On a more detailed basis, the share of papers published worldwide during the past five years with at least one author in China reached 31.7% in crystallography, 31.2% in metallurgy and metallurgical engineering, 19.9% in composites, 19.3% in polymer science, and 16.9% in multidisciplinary chemistry, according to Thomson Reuters.

    Authors in China are most likely to collaborate with authors in the U.S. Over the past five years, such pairings accounted for 8.9% of papers with an author in China. Collaborations with second-place Japan represented 3.0% of such papers, whereas those with Germany, which is in third place, accounted for 2.3%.

    Authors in China are also reaching out to collaborators in nations including South Korea, Singapore, and Australia. "Asia-Pacific nations are entirely happy to work with another's excellent research bases now," the report states. That means that when researchers in the U.S. and Europe approach their counterparts in China for possible collaboration, 'the question that may be put to them is what they can bring to the partnership to make it worth China's while to share.'"
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    Lets face facts - the chinese currency is one of the safest currencies to invest in.
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    A novel scheme to enhance local electric fields around metal nanostructures

    "A novel scheme to enhance local electric fields around metal nanostructures
    by Staff Writers
    Beijing, China (SPX) Oct 22, 2012


    This is a schematic presentation for illustration of the superposition of the incident waves in the nanorod-groove system. (Credit: Science China Press)

    Enhanced local electric fields are predominant in nonlinear optical properties, particularly in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), which is a sensitive technique used for the detection of trace amounts of chemicals.

    Analysis of the electric fields around nanostructures indicates that they can provide a basic foundation to obtain greater SERS intensity. Professor ZHANG Zhongyue and his group from the College of Physics and Information Technology at Shaanxi Normal University have proposed a novel scheme to enhance the local electric fields around nanostructures.


    The scheme is based on manipulation of the incident wave to allow the superposition of the electric fields of multiple beams of light to work as the excitation source for the electrons in the nanostructures, and larger electric fields are thus excited around the nanostructures. Their work, entitled "Enhancing the electric fields around the nanorods by using metal grooves", was published in SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics and Astronomy 2012, vol. 55 (10).

    SERS is one of the most promising applications of the enhanced optical fields generated by the excitation of local surface plasmons in metal nanostructures. The SERS spectrum reveals the vibration modes of molecules, thus conveying specific information with fingerprint-level accuracy.

    Also, the sensitivity of SERS is one of the highest among the currently available analytical techniques, potentially leading to single molecule detection. Although the SERS signal from a particular molecule originates from both chemical and electromagnetic contributions, the dominant factor in SERS is a result of the local electromagnetic field enhancement caused by the resonant excitation of localized surface plasmons in metal nanostructures.

    Because the surface plasmon resonance depends strongly on the shape of the nanostructures, nanostructures with different topological shapes were prepared to enhance the local electric fields. It was found that nanostructure pairs and nanogalaxies could also achieve stronger electric fields because of the electric field couplings or cascade electric field enhancements in the nanosystems.

    Unlike previous methods of building the SERS substrates, ZHANG Zhongyue and his group presented a novel scheme to enhance the electric fields around the nanostructures. By manipulating the incident wave, the superposition of the electric fields of multiple beams of light works as the excitation source. When the phase differences between the multiple beams of light are designed appropriately, the excitation fields for electron oscillations in the nanostructures are much greater than those at normal incidence.

    The electric fields around these nanostructures are also larger than those at normal incidence. The starting point of this scheme is the enhancement of the excitation field for the electron oscillations in the nanostructures, which does not conflict with previous designs that varied the topological shapes of the nanostructures or combined nanostructures to generate larger electric fields.

    Following the previously discussed schemes, ZHANG Zhongyue and his group presented the silver nanorod-groove system for SERS substrates. The grooves are used to manipulate the incident waves. The superposition of the electric fields of multiple beams of light works to excite the electron oscillations in the nanorods. As a result, the electric fields around the nanorods in the nanorod-groove system are much greater than those around individual nanorods and those in the nanorod-film system.

    For the nanorod-groove system, even with fabrication defects related to the oblique angle of the groove and the location of the nanorod, numerical calculations also show that larger electric fields can be excited around the nanorods. Although the separation distances between the nanorods affect the electric field distributions, the electric fields are always larger than those around individual nanorods and those around the nanorods in the nanorod-film system. Therefore, the nanorod-groove system provides a good structure to further enhance the local electric fields around the nanorods.

    See the article: Zhao Y. N., Qin Y., Cao W., et al. Enhancing the electric fields around the nanorods by using metal grooves. SCI CHINA Phys. Mech. Astron., 2012, 55 (10): 1763-1768"
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    China Will Surpass Japan in Wealth by 2017

    Global household wealth will grow by nearly 50 percent in the next five years to $330 trillion, with the Chinese overtaking the Japanese as the world's second richest people, Credit Suisse said in a report on Wednesday.

    The number of millionaires could jump by more than 60 percent to 46 million in 2017, with twice as many Chinese in that category than in 2012, while the United States would still account for more than a third of the world's most wealthy.

    "If the recent growth trends continue, China could reach the real wealth level that the USA enjoyed in 1992, which would represent a jump of 22 'USA years' in just five," Credit Suisse said in its Global Wealth Report 2012.

    Global household wealth - measured as households' financial and non-financial assets minus debt - rose by about 1 percent on constant exchange rates over the past year, the smallest increase since the 2008 Lehman collapse.

    Just 0.6 percent of the world's people have assets worth more than a million dollars apiece but collectively they account for nearly 40 percent of global wealth. Meanwhile, nearly 70 percent of the population has net assets below $10,000, or, less than 3.3 percent of global wealth in total.

    (Source)
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    Quote Originally Posted by Greater China View Post
    China Will Surpass Japan in Wealth by 2017

    Global household wealth will grow by nearly 50 percent in the next five years to $330 trillion, with the Chinese overtaking the Japanese as the world's second richest people, Credit Suisse said in a report on Wednesday.

    The number of millionaires could jump by more than 60 percent to 46 million in 2017, with twice as many Chinese in that category than in 2012, while the United States would still account for more than a third of the world's most wealthy.

    "If the recent growth trends continue, China could reach the real wealth level that the USA enjoyed in 1992, which would represent a jump of 22 'USA years' in just five," Credit Suisse said in its Global Wealth Report 2012.

    Global household wealth - measured as households' financial and non-financial assets minus debt - rose by about 1 percent on constant exchange rates over the past year, the smallest increase since the 2008 Lehman collapse.

    Just 0.6 percent of the world's people have assets worth more than a million dollars apiece but collectively they account for nearly 40 percent of global wealth. Meanwhile, nearly 70 percent of the population has net assets below $10,000, or, less than 3.3 percent of global wealth in total.

    (Source)
    No doubt China methodology of business and economy is reaping fantastic rewards!! Well done to them
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    China is building a huge eco-city where no one will need to drive

    "China is building a huge eco-city where no one will need to drive
    Alex Davies, Business Insider | Nov 3, 2012 7:00 AM ET | Last Updated: Nov 3, 2012 7:01 AM ET


    A new city being built near Chengdu, China, will consist of tall buildings that can provide room for 80,000 residents. (Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture/Business Insider)

    Outside Chengdu, in central China, a 78 million square foot site has been determined for an unconventional sort of construction project. It will be a city built from scratch, for 80,000 people, none of whom will need a car to get around.

    The “Great City” is a plan for an ambitious urban center designed to limit its residents environmental impact by producing clean energy, reducing waste, and promoting public transportation over individual car use.

    The project is the work of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture, who note that “Chinese planning officials [are] beginning to see the effects of automobile-dependent design and are open to better alternatives to urban sprawl.”

    It has been called the “Car-Free City,” a moniker that is not entirely accurate. The architecture firm notes that the vision is for a city where “cars will be essentially unnecessary,” but allowed.

    The master plan includes many good ideas. Half the road space will be reserved for non-motorized traffic, and electric shuttles will get people where they cannot or do not want to walk. All homes will be within a two-minute walk of a public park.

    An “eco-park” will treat wastewater and solid waste, and generate power. Land outside the city will be reserved for farming. Wildlife habitat will be protected. Buildings have been designed to maximize the use of wind power; the planners decided Chengdu’s hazy climate is not conducive to solar power.


    It has been called the "Car-Free City," a moniker that is not entirely accurate.
    (Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture/Business Insider)

    All told, Smith and Gill expect to cut energy use by 48%, water use by 58%, and produce 89% less waste, compared to a conventional development with a similar population.

    Going beyond environmental impact, Smith and Gill designed Great City to provide residents with affordable housing, education, and medical care, all clustered in the city center to encourage a thriving civic life.

    It’s a lovely vision for anyone concerned by climate change and social inequity, and the effectiveness of the power, transportation, and recycling systems will be judged once in place. But the project as a whole raises some questions.

    Can a city built so quickly stand the test of time? What happens to the architects’ scheme if residents don’t behave as expected? And even if this eco-city works as planned, what can China do to translate this program to the hundreds of millions of people living in older cities?

    Still, considering the rate at which China is urbanizing, a proven plan for minimizing the environmental impact of new cities would be worth a lot."

    ----------

    See the master plan


    It will be built on the fringes of Chengdu, a city of 17 million people.
    Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture)


    The master plan calls for a dense city surrounded by farmland. The team is also considering vertical farming in buildings.


    A system of electric shuttles will make cars unnecessary.


    A network of pedestrian trails will allow access to trails that run through the farmland and forest around the city.
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    China discovers 51-billion-tonne "super-size" coal mine in Inner Mongolia province

    China says a large uranium mine discovered | Business Standard

    "China says a large uranium mine discovered
    Press Trust of India / Beijing November 04, 2012, 19:55

    China, which has undertaken a big expansion of nuclear power generation, has been boosted by the discovery of a large uranium deposit in the northern regions.

    The mine, ranking as the country's largest leaching sandstone-type uranium deposit identified so far, was found in central Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, state-run Xinhua quoted an announcement by the Ministry of Land and Resources as saying today.

    The discovery, which makes the site one of the world's top uranium mines, has great significance for boosting domestic uranium supplies and ensuring energy sources for developing nuclear power, the ministry said, without elaborating on the mine's size.

    The site was discovered along with a "super-size" coal mine, the reserve of which was estimated at 51 billion tonnes, the ministry said.

    The discovery underlines the country's efforts to promote combined exploration of coal and uranium in a bid to save investment, it said.

    A 500-strong team consisting of technicians and constructors from nuclear power companies and related government departments has been deployed in the 10-month exploration after the site was tested for radioactivity during drilling.

    In 2008, China discovered its first 10,000-ton level leaching sandstone-type uranium deposit in the Yili basin in the northwestern Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.

    China, a major importer of uranium recently said it has given green signal to resume construction of a small number of the 40 new nuclear plants, lifting a ban after Fukoshima disaster.

    China also has an elaborate nuclear weapons programme."
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    China has a 500 million ton potash reserve at Lop Nur


    "Potassium is the seventh most abundant element in the earth’s crust. It is an essential salt which plays a crucial role in our daily lives and can be found in every cell of plants and animals.

    Potassium-bearing mineral, or potash, is mined from several thousand feet below the earth surface. Hundreds of thousands years ago when the ancient sea evaporates, potash ore deposits were remained on the surface of land. After many years, the potash was buried underground by sediments and today it must be mined and brought to surface.

    Canada has the world’s largest reserves of potash lying beneath the ground of its Western prairies — measured at 56 billion tonnes – sufficient for several thousand years at the current production rate.

    Potash is commonly used as one of the main plant nutrients in fertilizer. It is known as 'The Regulator' in crop production. Its function is to regulate essential processes including enzyme activation, photosynthesis, water use efficiency, starch formation and protein synthesis. Crops that are fertilized with potash will have the strengths to fight against stress, disease and pests and prevent wilting.

    Especially for agricultural areas where soil is depleted and natural potassium levels may be low, the practice of potash application is mandatory to rectify the imbalance of soil nutrition and add nutrients to improve crop quality. Ultimately, the farmland provides quality nutrient for healthier plant growth with higher crop yields."

    ----------

    China to open ex-atomic site to tourists

    "China to open ex-atomic site to tourists
    by Staff Writers
    Beijing (UPI) Oct 17, 2012
    ...
    The region also is home to some of China's largest mines exploiting huge potash deposits. The Lop Nur area has an estimated 500 million tons of reserves, a report by the Chinese government's official website.

    To exploit the potash, China has been building dozens of rail lines and by 2020, the region's total rail mileage will be around 6,500 miles, the government estimates."

    [Note: "Potash is the common name for various mined and manufactured salts that contain potassium in water-soluble form."]
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    Hu-Wen administration: 96% of Chinese are now covered by medical insurance

    Britain's newspaper The Guardian itemizes the superb achievements of the Hu Jintao-Wen Jiabao administration (see citation below):

    1. Abolishing agricultural tax - "abolition of agricultural tax and tuition fees"
    2. Comprehensive national medical insurance - "the rolling out of medical insurance that reimburses most of their bills"
    3. Free school lunches - "free [school] lunch with classmates"
    4. Medical insurance now covers 96% of Chinese (up from 20%) - "A decade ago, 147 million urban employees and 55 million rural residents had pension coverage. Now 229 million urban employees are covered, and 449 million rural and urban residents; 124 million are already receiving payments. A few years ago, barely 20% of rural dwellers had medical insurance; now 96% of the population are covered."
    5. Lowering threshold to qualify for poverty assistance - "urban poverty line – which is set in each city – worked out nationally at 15% of urban average disposable income last year, down from the high 20s a decade ago."

    The result? "[R]esearch by Tony Saich of Harvard University found that satisfaction with the government had actually gone up between 2003 and 2011."

    ----------

    China's 'golden decade' brings some relief to rural poor | World news | The Guardian

    "China's 'golden decade' brings some relief to rural poor
    Tania Branigan in Beijing
    The Guardian, Monday 5 November 2012 14.56 EST

    The gap widens between town and country, but welfare state begins to take root with healthcare, pensions and free lunches


    Sonam Qoezom receives treatment in Hefei, Anhui province as children in rural areas of China now reap the benefit of medical insurance. Photograph: Liu Junxi/Xinhua Press/Corbis

    Until a few months ago, 10-year-old Zhao Ai went hungry from dawn to dusk, despite the two-hour trek between his mountain home and school. Now he enjoys a free lunch with classmates.

    Like tens of millions of households in China, his family are farmers who live on meagre profits from the crops they can spare and wages sent back by relatives working in cities hundreds of miles away. In a land now dotted with skyscrapers and designer stores, they are scraping by in one of the poorest areas, a remote part of south-western Guizhou province. As others prosper, they fall further behind. Yet in the past decade, a string of measures have offered some relief: the abolition of agricultural tax and tuition fees, the rolling out of medical insurance that reimburses most of their bills, a 55-yuan monthly (£5.50) pension for Zhao's grandfather, and now the school lunches.

    "Compared to rich people, our life is not that good – but it is much better than before," said Zhao's grandmother, Xu Zuxian.

    As China prepares for its leadership transition, state media hail a "golden decade" under the incumbents. Critics call it a lost decade, rife with wasted opportunities for the economic, social and political reforms the country needs. They say Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao have maintained high growth – not an insignificant achievement, given the wider global economic woes – but failed to tackle the problems now accumulating thanks to that model.

    Yet others believe that for all the disappointments, the administration is leaving behind what could yet prove a significant political legacy: building the skeleton of a welfare state and attempting to put a shelf below those at the bottom of society.

    "The government invested a lot of money in ordinary people's living standards
    … China is starting to enter the 'welfare China' stage, although it is still at quite a low level," noted Beijing-based scholar Deng Yuwen, in many ways an outspoken critic of the authorities' record.

    Wang Dewen, social protection economist with the World Bank in Beijing, added: "The government has done a great job." At the beginning, the social insurance programme targeted urban workers, but it gradually extended to migrant workers and introduced rural medical insurance and pension programmes. "They have set up ambitious objectives … They have mobilised resources from the whole society to achieve them."

    A decade ago, 147 million urban employees and 55 million rural residents had pension coverage. Now 229 million urban employees are covered, and 449 million rural and urban residents; 124 million are already receiving payments. A few years ago, barely 20% of rural dwellers had medical insurance; now 96% of the population are covered.

    While inequality has soared over the past decade – the gap between town and country has expanded, with rural dwellers enjoying less than a third of average urban incomes on official measures and perhaps as little as a fifth according to experts – research by Tony Saich of Harvard University found that satisfaction with the government had actually gone up between 2003 and 2011.

    Strikingly, significant increases were seen among the poorest and the wealthiest. "When we started, those in the poorest categories were least satisfied with the local government," Saich said. "That's where I think things like the dibao [a subsidy for the poorest] and some kind of medical insurance have improved their view."

    How much credit Hu and Wen deserve is a matter of opinion; their predecessors began some programmes and other leaders would presumably have sought to address the problems that emerged with China's development. "But you also have to look at the individuals," said Saich. "Hu has not spent most of his career in the glitziest parts of Shanghai and Beijing; he's been in quite poor areas … [I once heard] Wen say: 'I can't guarantee that I've been to every county in China, but I can guarantee that I've been to every poor county.'"

    The significance of their legacy will depend on how their successors build upon it. "There's been a foundation, but there is a long way to go," said Dorothy Solinger of the University of California Irvine. As an expert on the dibao, she points out: "The whole programme remains miserable and very, very stingy." The urban expansion of the dibao was made under the previous leaders, she notes, and the urban poverty line – which is set in each city – worked out nationally at 15% of urban average disposable income last year, down from the high 20s a decade ago.

    Even at existing payment levels, there are obvious funding problems. The pensions of current retirees are being paid by new workers, for instance, said David Kelly, research director of Beijing-based consultancy China Policy – and the demographics are working against the system. China is ageing rapidly and its workforce is shrinking. In 2000, there were six workers for every person over 60. By 2030, there will be barely two.

    Authorities must also address broader issues. Corruption and incompetence need to be tackled to ensure funds reach their intended beneficiaries: "There are already cases of fraud and fingers in the till," warned Kelly.

    Many also believe that creating a proper welfare state will require a long-awaited overhaul of the hukou, the household registration system that defines people as urban or rural and allocates their rights to services such as education accordingly. At present migrants – and their children, who inherit their parents' status – in effect become second-class citizens in cities.

    "It's the hardest thing to touch because it involves popular sentiment. City dwellers don't want a wave of people coming to share the same benefits as them," warned Kelly.

    Developing a welfare state in China will require the support not just of China's new leaders – but of its citizens, too."
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    Taiwanese engineer first fluorescent pink angelfish - Taipei Times

    "Taiwanese engineer first fluorescent pink angelfish
    By Chung Li-hua and Jake Chung / Staff reporter, with staff writer
    Fri, Nov 09, 2012

    NEW BREED: Researchers from Jy Lin Trading, National Ocean University and Academia Sinica developed the fish, and were immediately offered NT$100,000 for one


    Pink transgenic glowing fish swim in a tank at an event on Wednesday to introduce the latest creation — dubbed “pink angels” — by JY Lin Trading, National Taiwan Ocean University, National Kaohsiung Marine University and Academia Sinica. (Photo courtesy of National Taiwan Ocean University)

    The world’s first-ever pink fluorescent Pterophyllum scalare, commonly known as the angelfish, were showcased in an exhibit on Wednesday prior to the Taiwan International Aquarium Expo, which opens today.

    Lin Yu-ho (林育禾), president of Jy Lin Trading Co — the company that cooperated with National Ocean University and Academia Sinica on developing the fish — said this was the first time the world had seen a pink angelfish since the fish was discovered in the Amazon.

    Despite the 32 colors developed worldwide for the angelfish, the fish lacked the cells to create any color resembling pink, Lin said, adding that the company had accomplished the endeavor after three years of research with the university and Academia Sinica.

    Lin said the fluorescent proteins that would be able to display a “pinkish” color were discovered by National Kaohsiung Marine University associate professor Chen Ming-chyuan (陳鳴泉) on acropora corals growing near Taiwan.

    National Ocean University assistant professor Gong Hong-yi (龔紘毅) discovered that the fish would be born pink if micro-transfusion methods were used to transfuse the protein into angelfish eggs.

    The research group at Academia Sinica, which consisted of researcher Wu Chin-lieh (吳金洌) and associate research fellow Chen Chih-yi (陳志毅), collaborated to inject the proteins into the eggs.

    The research team said that the micro-transfusion process had been very difficult due to the fragility of the angelfish eggs, adding that on average they had been able to successfully transfuse the proteins into only one egg per 10,000 at first.

    The team said they were able to raise the success rate to 1 percent after three years of research.

    Despite the first appearance causing quite an uproar, with one foreign buyer even offering NT$100,000 for one of the genetically modified fish, the company was forced to decline until the species passes safety assessments in field tests.

    Jy Lin general manager Ou Mei-ju (歐梅如) said the only fluorescent fish currently on the market is the zebrafish, which mostly features green and pink colors.

    However, Ou said the fluorescent colors of the zebrafish can only be observed at night, while the fluorescent lighting of the company’s angelfish can be seen even in broad daylight.

    Additional reporting by Chen Yi-ching and Yu Chao-fu"

    ----------

    World's first pink fluorescent fish | ArabNews

    "World's first pink fluorescent fish
    Saturday, 10 November 2012



    Genetically engineered angelfish (Pterophyllum) glow in a tank during a news conference before the 2012 Taiwan International Aquarium Expo in Taipei November 7, 2012. The fish, which are the world's first pink fluorescent angelfish and can view without blacklight, were created by a joint project between Taiwan's Academia Sinica, National Taiwan Ocean University and Jy Lin, a private biotechnology company, according to the organizer. The 2012 Taiwan International Aquarium Expo will be held at Taipei World Trade Center Nangang Exhibition Hall from November 9 to 12. (Reuters/Pichi Chuang)"
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    Last edited by Martin; 10th November 2012 at 07:42.
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  19. #59
    Professionals Martin's Avatar
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    China will overtake the U.S. economy in nominal dollars by 2022

    We can calculate the approximate date that China will overtake U.S. nominal GDP.

    From IMF projections last month, the U.S. GDP for this year is $15.65 trillion and Chinese GDP is $8.25 trillion. See List of countries by past and future GDP (nominal) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    I will use reasonable and conservative estimates. Also, I will ignore the difference in inflation rates between the U.S. and China. Inflation rates are now pretty low in both countries and they should be roughly the same over a ten year period.

    Let's assume the U.S. will grow at an average rate of 2% per year (which is the U.S. historic growth rate due to 1% annual growth from technology and 1% growth from labor force increase) and China will grow at an average of 7.5% per year.

    Also, let's assume China's currency will appreciate by an average of 2.5% per year. In U.S. dollars, China's effective economic growth is 10% per year (e.g. 7.5% real growth plus 2.5% currency appreciation = 10% annual growth in U.S. dollar terms).

    Let's compare U.S. and Chinese nominal GDP in ten years.

    U.S.: $15.65 trillion x (1.02)^10 = $19.08 trillion (in present dollars since we excluded inflation)

    China: $8.25 trillion x (1.10)^10 = $21.40 trillion (in present dollars since we excluded inflation)

    In conclusion, if China's real economic growth stays around 7.5% for the next ten years and its currency keeps appreciating by 2.5% each year then the Chinese nominal economy will be noticeably larger than the American economy in 2022. This historic shift will occur during the Xi Jinping administration.
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  20. #60
    Professionals Martin's Avatar
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    China's new desalination technology produces 300 gallons of fresh water for $1

    China has developed "advanced reverse-osmosis membrane" technology to desalinate seawater at a cost of "4 to 5 yuan per ton" (see citation below).

    One ton of water = 2,000 pounds
    2,000 pounds / (8.35 pounds per gallon) = 239.52 gallons

    5 Yuans / (6.2356 Yuans per U.S. dollar) = 80.185 cents

    239.52 gallons / 0.80185 dollars = 298.7 gallons per dollar (which is close enough to 300 gallons of desalinated water per dollar)

    From the citation below, China is currently producing 660,000 tons of desalinated water a day.

    660,000 tons of desalinated water x (239.52 gallons per ton of water) = 158,083,200 gallons of desalinated water

    China is currently producing 158 million gallons of desalinated water per day.

    China is expected to have the capacity to desalinate 2.6 million tons of water per day by 2015.

    2.6 millions tons of desalinated water x (158.083 million gallons / 660,000 tons) = 623 million gallons of fresh/desalinated water per day by 2015 in China

    Since it only costs $1 for 300 gallons of desalinated water, China should not have a shortage of fresh water. After all, China will desalinate 623 million gallons of water each day by 2015. That's half a gallon of desalinated water for every Chinese each day!

    ----------

    Desalination tech helps slake nation's thirst for fresh water |Industries |chinadaily.com.cn

    "Desalination tech helps slake nation's thirst for fresh water
    Updated: 2012-11-15 11:18
    By Yang Feiyue ( China Daily)

    China made remarkable progress in seawater desalination in recent years through the use of membrane technology, said Xu Nanping of the Chinese Academy of Engineering.

    The new technology stands out from traditional methods, such as extraction and evaporation due to its lower energy consumption and higher purification rate, Xu said.

    "And it has become an effective way to deal with the water shortage in China," he added.

    He noted that "China's water shortfall will reach 400 billion tons in 2050. The resulting loss in manufacturing will reach about 200 billion yuan ($32 billion) and in agriculture 150 billion yuan."

    The membrane technology, which is now used in 80 percent of the seawater purification projects in the country, will not only bring down treatment costs but also greatly increase fresh water supplies to meet huge demand in coastal regions, Xu said.

    China National Bluestar (Group) Co Ltd has a number of seawater desalination projects on China's eastern coast, notably in Zhejiang province, using membrane technology developed by its Hangzhou Water Treatment Technology Center.

    Bluestar is a subsidiary of the China National Chemical Corp, a Fortune 500 company, which is engaged in a wide range of business, such as new chemical materials, oil processing and agrochemicals.

    Using the center's advanced reverse-osmosis membrane method, a seawater desalination project is now operational on Zhejiang's Liuheng Island.

    Its existing first phase can provide about 20,000 tons of fresh water a day, freeing locals from reliance on supplies from the larger Zhoushan Island.

    The local government is cooperating with Bluestar to build another three phases with total capacity of 80,000 tons a day to supply Liuheng and neighboring islands.


    Gao Congjie, an academic of the Chinese Academy of Engineering and researcher at Bluestar's Hangzhou Water Treatment Technology Center, also praised the new technology.

    He said "China has been desalinating seawater for 60 years, but it is only in the past 10 years that breakthroughs have been made with membrane technology".

    "The membrane resembles a sieve with super-fine pores that allows water molecules to pass but keeps bigger-molecule salts and impurities," Gao explained.

    He noted that the current cost of seawater desalination using the technology is 4 to 5 yuan per ton, a price already acceptable to business users. The number of household users is expected to grow due to foreseeable cost savings and government subsidies.

    You Jinde, secretary-general of the China Membrane Industry Association, said "we're now able to treat 660,000 tons of seawater a day with the membrane technology, and the process has gained ground in Zhejiang, Liaoning and Tianjin".

    Tianjin now has 6,000 tons of desalinated seawater piped to the public every day, a figure that is expected to rise.

    You said "Beijing is also considering using desalinated water from Caofeidian in Hebei province".

    Government support

    Seawater desalination is also gaining strong support from the central government, according to Yang Shangbao, an official with the National Development and Reform Commission.

    An NDCR estimate said that China's seawater desalination capacity will be between 2.2 and 2.6 million tons a day by 2015, or three to four times the current figure. Revenues in the industry are projected to hit 10 billion yuan by that time.

    But You of the China Membrane Industry Association noted the challenges ahead.

    "The price gap between desalinated water and tap water and the pollution from the desalination process are pressing concerns of the government and the industry," he said.

    Mark Irwin, chief operating officer of China National Bluestar Co, suggested that condensed saline water from the process can be recycled to produce soda ash.

    You called for government subsidies for both desalination plants and users to make the new water resource affordable for businesses and households.

    Use of membrane technology is a trend in global desalination industry, Corrado Sommariva, president of the International Desalination Association, said at an international forum last month in Beijing.

    "Seawater desalination has become an important approach to getting fresh water, and 80 percent of such projects in the world are membrane based," he said.

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