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Thread: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

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    Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    History and Timeline

    June 22/06:

    Saab announces a SEK 8.3 billion external link (approx. $1.15 billion at then-rate conversion) provisional contract for Airborne Early Warning & Control (AEW&C) surveillance systems using Saab 2000 turboprops equipped with Ericsson’s Erieye radar.

    Initially Pakistan aimed to buy 14 SAAB 2000 aircraft from Sweden: 7 for the PAF’s AEW&C role as Argus aircraft, and the remaining 7 for the state-owned PIA airline,or VIP transport/training. Saab releases, however, have made no mention of a passenger version. It said only that:

    “Two third of the order value is for Saab and one third for Ericsson Microwave Systems, witch is, after the Saab acquisition, expected to be a part of Saab in September 2006.”



    May 28/07:

    PAF reduced the number of Planes on Order and the contract with SAAB group was renegotiated.

    As a result of the renegotiation, the order value is decreased by approximately SEK 1.35 billion [DID 8.3B - 1.35B = 6.95B, a 16.3% reduction and about $1 billion total at a May 28 conversion]. Income will decrease proportionally to the volume change, but other commercial terms and conditions will remain unchanged.”

    The number of planes in the revised order was not specified. But it is speculated that 4 AEW&C Plus 1 VIP transport/Trainer were ordered after the Renegotiations due to Financial difficulties/Change of priorities from PAF.


    April 3/08:

    China’s government-controlled Xinhua reports external link that the first Saab 2000 Erieye aircraft for the PAF was rolled out in Sweden and prepared for flight trials by the year end, after being equipped with a full suite of mission systems. “The Pakistan Air Force achieved a major landmark in its Airborne Early Warning Program with the roll out of its first Saab 2000 AEW&C in a simple but impressive ceremony at the Saab facility in Sweden,” the PAF statement said.


    May 28/09

    Pakistan’s Chief of the Air Staff, Air Chief Marshal Rao Qamar Suleman, is quoted by Pakistan’s The News International external link as saying that Pakistan would begin receiving its AWACS planes by October 2009.

    Oct 21/09:

    In a ceremony in Linköping, Saab and the Pakistan Air Force celebrate the start of the final tests of the new Erieye AEW&C (Airborne Early Warning and Control) aircraft. The aircraft is currently undergoing system tests in Sweden, which aim is to evaluate the complete system including aircraft, radar, C2 system, communication and live situation picture. Follow on testing in Pakistan later in 2009, including integration into the Pakistan Air Force’s Command & Control Ground Environment.

    Dec 14/09

    Pakistan’s Daily Times quotes Minister for Defence Production, Abdul Qayyum Khan Jatoi, who confirms that the 1st Erieye AWACS plane has reached Pakistan, and 3 more planes are expected in 2010. The formal induction ceremony takes place on Dec 29/09

    April 24/10

    #2 arrives. Pakistan’s 2nd of 4 Saab-2000 AEW aircraft lands at an operational base, as preparations are made to induct it into the fleet.


    PAF did not announce any further Arrivals of SAAB Erieye.


    Aug 16/12: Minhas attack

    Terrorists Attacked Minhas Air Base, at Kamra . Base commander Air Commodore Muhammad Azam is reported to be seriously wounded but in a stable condition, 2 soldiers die, and all 8 attackers are killed. It later emerges that 1 of the Saab AEW aircraft was destroyed.

    Feb 6-9/13

    Defence Secretary Lt. Gen. (ret.) Asif Yasin Malik informs Pakistan’s National Assembly Standing Committee on Defence that the defence installations saw their last attacks in Peshawar and the Kamra airbase, but adds that an AWACS plane was destroyed during the attack on Kamra AB in August 2012. Initially, it isn’t clear which AWACS plane type he’s referring to, but a subsequent report by Pakistan’s The News International confirms that it was one of Saab’s S2000 AEW planes.

    That’s a bit awkward, because Pakistani authorities have apparently been claiming for the last 6 months that the attack had just damaged an aircraft’s nose cone, and that it would be repaired in Sweden. The report also refers to “one of the four” planes, which would finally provide a reliable number.

    Speaking of reliable numbers, the report quotes varied prices per plane of $130-140 million, up to $250 million. It’s true that the final, reduced deal was worth about $1 billion, so dividing by 4 does get $250 million. On the other hand, any purchase like this must also include extensive training, a full stock of spare parts, and extensive initial support. A $140 million per plane figure implies a split of $560 million planes (140 x 4) + $440 million support etc. That seems high, but it all depends on the level of support provided.
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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    History of PAF's SAAB-2000 planes.

    The Ericson Erieye AEW&C systems are Mounted on SAAB-2000 Turboprop Planes.The SAAB-2000 were last Manufactured in 1999.Only 63 Planes were ever built.For that reason all PAF Erieye systems are Fitted on modified second hand Planes.

    Modifications for Conversion and Life expectancy of PAF SAAB-2000
    Saab 2000 aircraft have flown about 25% of their life expectancy, leaving 30-35 years of remaining special-mission life span on average. Preparing a platform for the special mission role requires significant modification lasting 6-8 months, including engine refurbishment in cases new engines are introduced, structural strengthening as required, bonded and anodized corrosion protection at manufacture ensures continued corrosion protection in salty environments for maritime operations. Aircraft are also installed with self protection systems (chaff dispenser and ESM pod on each wingtip and chaff/flare dispensers at the belly. Auxiliary power unit and cooling systems are installed at the aft section. The main sensors are located at the belly (MPA) or dorsal superstructure (Erieye) which requires the most significant changes, such as the additional superstructure installation for the Erieye platforms, involving dorsal, tail and wing strengthening, wingtip pods installations, and installations of self protection systems in the wingtip, nose belly and on the engine cowling.
    ................................................


    Following are the Airframe numbers of the Pakistan's Erieye Planes.The J-019 is not fitted with Erieye AEW&C and is being used as VIP Transport and trainer for Pilots selected to fly the AEW&C planes.



    10025 025 Saab 2000 AEW&C SE-025
    Delivered to PAF 1n May-2010.


    10040 040 Saab 2000 AEW&C SE-040
    Delivered to PAF in July-2010


    10045 045 Saab 2000 AEW&C SE-045
    Deleivered to PAF in October-2011


    10049 049 Saab 2000 AEW&C SE-049
    Delivered to PAF in February-2010


    J-019 019 Saab 2000 VIP Transport PAF SE-019
    Deliver in September 2008
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    Last edited by Jagga; 16th September 2013 at 02:08.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    Type Multi-mode active electronically scanned array (AESA) pulse doppler radar
    Frequency S-band
    Range 450 km
    Altitude > 20 km (> 65,000 ft)
    Azimuth 150° to each side


    The Erieye radar system, is an Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AEW&C) developed by Saab Electronic Defence Systems (formerly Ericsson Microwave Systems) of Sweden. It is based on the Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA). The Erieye is used on a variety of aircraft platforms, such as the Brazilian Embraer E-99 or EMB-145. It has recently been implemented on the Saab 2000 aircraft.
    The Erieye Ground Interface Segment (EGIS; not to be confused with the Aegis combat system) is a major component of the software used by the Erieye system.
    The radar provides 300 degree coverage and has an instrumental range of 450km and detection range of 350 km in a dense hostile electronic warfare environment—in heavy radar clutter and at low target altitudes. In addition to this, the radar is also capable of identifying friends or foes, and has a sea surveillance mode.
    The Erieye system has full interoperability with NATO air defence command and control systems.

    Design

    The Erieye AEW&C mission system radar is an active, phased-array, pulse-doppler sensor that can feed an onboard operator architecture or downlink data (via an associated datalink subsystem) to a ground-based air defence network. The system employs a large aperture, dual-sided antenna array housed in a dorsal 'plank' fairing. The antenna is fixed, and the beam is electronically scanned, which provides for improved detection and significantly enhanced tracking performance compared with radar-dome antenna systems. Erieye detects and tracks air and sea targets out to the horizon, and sometimes beyond this due to anomalous propagation — instrumented range has been measured at 450 kilometres (280 mi). Typical detection range against fighter-sized targets is approximately 425 kilometres (264 mi), in a 150° broadside sector, both sides of the aircraft. Outside these sectors, performance is reduced in forward and aft directions.
    Other system features include: Adaptive waveform generation (including digital, phase-coded pulse compression); Signal processing and target tracking; track while scan (TWS); low side lobe values (throughout the system's angular coverage); low- and medium-pulse repetition frequency operating modes; frequency agility; Air-to-air and sea surveillance modes; and target radar cross-section display.
    The radar operates as a medium- to high-PRF pulse-Doppler, solid-state radar, in E/F-band (3 GHz), incorporating 192 two-way transmit/receive modules that combine to produce a pencil beam, steered as required within the operating 150° sector each side of the aircraft (one side at a time). It is understood that Erieye has some ability to detect aircraft in the 30° sectors fore and aft of the aircraft heading, but has no track capability in this sector.


    ERIEYE AEW&C Mission System

    ERIEYE is a high-performance, long range Airborne Early Warning and Control (AEW&C) system based on active phased-array pulse doppler radar. The ERIEYE meets full AEW&C reqirements for detecting and tracking targets at ranges of upto 450 Kms over land or water. ERIEYE is part of a complete AEW&C system, including radar with integrated Secondary Surveillance Radar, Identification Friend or Foe (SSR/IFF) electronic support measures, communications and data links, comprehensive command-and-control facilities and self-protection systems. The ERIEYE radar with its fixed electronically scanned antenna and use of adaptive radar control techniques, has superior resolution accuracy. When compared to traditional rotodome based solutions, it provides enhanced detection and tracking performance, including the active simultaneous tracking of multiple targets. In addition, the radar offers significantly improved resistance to Electronic Counter Measures (ECM). The state-of-art command and control system gives the onboard mission-system crew full capability for AEW&C roles as well as maximum flexibility for other peacetime roles.

    ERIEYE uses the multibeam adaptive array antenna. Due to microstrip patch elements, Butler matrices, and several dual-polarized beams, adaptive antenna arrays yield high antenna gain and excellent spatial efficiency.
    The Ericsson Erieye system uses an active phased array radar mounted in a two sided array geometry contained in a large beam shaped structure carried above the fuselage. The limitation of the two sided array is that it can only cover two 120 degree sectors abeam of the aircraft, leaving 60 degree blind sectors over the nose and tail of the aircraft.

    Remote control
    With the unique remote control feature the ERIEYE AEW&C offers an alternative to having mission personnel onboard
    during operations.

    The Radar


    The radar itself, which consists of 192 transmit/receive modules, has been improved with an extended early warning mode and the ability to spot hovering helicopters. Coverage has been increased to two 150-degree sectors (from 120-degrees, still with a 1-degree beamwidth), with range out to the horizon (typically 199 to 217 miles). The radar offers a fully fused air/sea capability, and can spot maritime targets as small as jet-skis.

    Virtually all of the radar components have been replaced since the Erieye was first fielded in 1996, and all of the computer systems are COTS-based for cost-effective and rapid upgrade. Power output is around 20 percent greater than it was previously, although power requirements, and thus cooling, for the mission system have decreased by 30 percent. The effects of improvement can also be seen in a 53-percent reduction in system weight and 78-percent reduction in floor space. At the same time, computing power has increased a hundredfold.

    Backing up the radar is a sophisticated Saab Avitronics HES-21 ESM/protection suite that uses interferometer antennas and digital receivers for highly accurate tracking and ranging of emitters. HES-21 data is fused with that from the radar to provide detailed tracking, and it can generate its own tracks at ranges greater than that possible with the radar. The system also includes a comprehensive self-protection function, automatically controlling the launch of chaff and flares.
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    Last edited by Jagga; 24th September 2013 at 16:33.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

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    Last edited by Jagga; 15th September 2013 at 23:47.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    From Manufacturer's website

    ERIEYE SYSTEM CAPABiLiTieS


    ERIEYE is a complete AEW&C system that provides multi-role and multi-mission capabilities for both military and civilian needs.

    Multi-role capability
    The capabilities of the EriEyE AEW&C
    Mission System include:
    • Air Surveillance
    • Sea Surveillance
    • Intelligence
    • Command & Control

    Multi-mission capability
    Typical mission-types include:
    • Air and Sea surveillance including Intelligence
    • Airborne Early Warning

    • Control of own assets
    • Surveillance and control of national borders,
    assets and economic zones
    • Search and Rescue
    • Alert warning
    • Air policing
    The extensive COM suite secures communication
    with participating assets and other control centres,
    on the ground or in the air.
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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    ERIEYE gives you the capabilities of a national asset to reinforce territorial integrity and national security. It is a proven system, operational since 1996. As the first modern AESA compact AEW&C system, it has constantly evolved to be in the top of the edge.

    Dynamic detection
    Flying at high altitude, ERIEYE covers a much wider area than a conventional ground-based sensor system does. The effective surveillance area is more than 500,000 sq km horizontally and over 60,000 ft vertically. Sea coverage is only limited by the horizon,
    which is around 190 nM. Within this area, everything from fighter aircraft, hovering helicopters, cruise missiles or sea targets down to a Jet Ski can be detected and tracked.The system will always deliver a reliable flow of precise information, irrespective of atmospheric and clutter conditions, 24 hours a day.

    Compact and cost-effective
    The lightweight design of ERIEYE makes it ideal for medium- size commuter-type aircraft. This gives a cost profile far lower than rival systems requiring larger platforms. ERIEYE is today integrated on both turboprop and jet aircraft, Saab 2000 and Embraer-145. The ERIEYE integration on these platforms benefits from high availability and low operational cost. In short, it has a small
    organisational footprint.


    Flexibility through technology
    The radar is based on the latest Active Phased Array technology, enabling the beam to be adjusted according to the situation. The radar energy can be spread over an extensive area or concentrated within a smaller prioritized area.The radar produces particularly sharp and narrow beams with ultra-low side lobes. It detects objects quickly and monitors with high precision and a high update rate. S-band technology ensures top performance in all weather conditions. The current generation uses the latest technology, providing increased performance and functionality.

    Key erieye ADVAnTAgeS
    • extends your horizon 10 times over
    • detects and tracks all air and sea targets, down to cruise missile or Jet Ski size, even in heavy clutter and jamming conditions
    • deploys rapidly to cover new and changing areas of operation, including intelligence
    • is proven in 7 countries worldwide, fulfilling military and civilian task
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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    MANUFATURER'S SPECIFICATIONS

    SYSTEM OVERVIEW

    The Mission System includes sensors, C2 and communications. These are complemented by a comprehensive suite of training and support systems.

    Primary Surveillance radar (PSR)
    • AESA technology providing high availability and outstanding flexibility through the use of electrically scanned antenna
    • S-band, doppler radar, providing a clutter-free picture over land and sea
    • Automated tracking of all air and sea targets with high update rates
    • Fully adaptive radar which adapts to the operational scenario

    Secondary Surveillance radar (SSR) and identification Friend or Foe (IFF)
    • Integrated with the Primary Surveillance Radar and covers 360 degrees
    • Electrically scanned antenna arrays
    • Modes 1, 2, 3/A, C, 4 and S (prepared for mode 5)

    Command & Control (C2)
    • Five multi-role operation consoles
    • The combined air and sea picture is displayed and includes tools for decision support and asset handling
    • Data fusion of all sensors and links providing system tracks

    Communications (COM)
    • Extensive voice communication suite tailored to customer requirements including HF, VHF and UHF
    • Real-time in-house data link dedicated for AEW&C or NATO Link 16 and Link11
    • Sat Com

    Electronic Support Measures (ESM)
    • Digital-Receiver based technology for selective precision measurements of RF signals in dense signal environments
    • Long range, and 360 degrees coverage, with robust emitter identification
    • High accuracy Direction Finding and Geo Location
    • ELInT capability with high capacity recording and analysis including Intra pulse data
    • Extensive operator tools for maintaining the EOB with short turn-around time and fully user- programmable emitter identification library

    Self Protection System (SPS)
    Self Protection suite including the following capabilities:
    • Missile Approach Warning
    • Laser Warning
    • Radar Warning
    • Chaff and Flare Dispensing

    Communication intelligence (COMINT)
    • Long-range intercept of communication signals with high AoA accuracy
    • Wideband monitoring of Signals of Interest
    • Provides Electronic Order of Battle, contributing to a comprehensive Recognized Situation Picture
    • Supports intelligence collection

    Mission Training System (MTS)
    • A complete training system where all types of inter-crew procedures including leadership are practised
    • Training on identical operator stations as in the air
    • Instructor stations where operational scenarios can be adjusted in real time

    Planning and Debriefing System (PDS)
    • A system for planning and evaluation of missions
    • Planning data is carried on-board the aircraft on a USB
    • All mission data and data for maintenance is recorded on-board and saved on a USB for debriefing
    • Extensive tools for evaluation such as replay

    Integrated Logistics Support (ILS)
    • Saab offers a complete ILS solution tailored to precise customers’ need
    • Before delivery, training is provided for both operators and maintenance personal
    • After delivery a tailored programme for service and support is provided
    • Saab offers a long-term commitment covering the system in-service life time
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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    Engine

    The aircraft is fitted with two Rolls-Royce AE 2100A turboprop engines developing 3,095kW. AE 2100A is a two shaft gas turbine engine equipped with a 14-stage high pressure (HP) compressor driven by a two-stage HP turbine. The engine also features a planetary reduction gearbox connected to the propeller. It also features a full authority digital engine control (FADEC) to manage both engine and propeller.
    The length and diameter of the engine are 11.8in (0.29m) and 19in (0.48m) respectively.

    Saab 2000 Aircraft performance

    The aircraft can climb an altitude of 9,144m in 15 minutes. The maximum cruise and patrol speed of the aircraft are 629km/h and 296km/h respectively. The range is 3,218km. The take-off run of the aircraft is 1,400m and the maximum endurance is 9.5 hours. The aircraft weighs around 14,500kg and its maximum take-off weight is 23,000kg.
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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    The ZDK-03 Karakoram Eagle AEW&C

    Pakistan Air Force had signed a contract in 2008 with CETC of China for the joint development of 04 ZDK-03 AWACS aircraft configured to Pakistan Air Force specifications. The total cost of the contract was less than 300 Million USD. Each individual system had a price tag of about 70 Million USD. This was far less expensive than any AEW&C available.

    On 13 November 2010 Rollout Ceremony of first Chinese ZDK-03 AWACS aircraft for Pakistan Air Force was held at Hanzhong, China.The aircraft went through extensive flight and static testing.


    ZDK-03 is an export version of KJ-200 AWACS system specifically developed for the Pakistani Air Force. This project was initiated in the early 2000. The design is based on the new Y-8 Category III Platform featuring WJ-6C turboprops with 6-blade propellers and Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar which gives 360° coverage. PAF ordered 4 of such systems in 2009, which worth $278m.
    *
    ZDK-03 AEW&C Karakoram Eagle has single active electronically steered array radar from the Chinese KJ-2000 which is mounted on a turboprop-powered Y-8F600 in a rotating rotodome.ZDK-03 has a speed of Maximum speed: 660km/h (357 knots, mph) and a range of 5,615km (3030nm, mi)

    On October 7, 2011 The first Shaanxi ZDK-03 AEW&C aircraft has arrived at PAF Base Masroor in Karachi.
    Last edited by Jagga; 16th September 2013 at 02:59.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    In 2006, Pakistan signed a contract c Chinese China Electronics Technology Group Corporation (CETC) to develop and supply him four aircraft ZDK-03 Karakoram Eagle in 2008. Planes are called ZDK-03 in honor of CETC (abbreviation of the Chinese name is read as Zhong Dian Ke). The number "03" indicates that this is the third set of AWACS, created by the company - the first two were KJ-2000, KJ-200.

    Tests of the prototype radar system ZDK-03 was carried out on the plane Y-8AEW in China since the beginning of 2006. Rolled out the first batch of Pakistani aircraft ZDK-03, built on the basis of the transport plane Y-8F-400 (series 3) was used to Shaanxi Aircraft Company in November 2010 and in January 2011, this machine is tested intensively in the PRC with the Pakistani crew. Final transfer of the aircraft "11-001" Pakistan Air Force was carried out in November 2011. The second and third copies were received in the Air Force in December of the same year.

    Delivered in 2011 in Pakistan three aircraft ZDK-03 became the first Chinese AWACS complexes aimed at export. Production of all key components of the Chinese aviation radar, including two-way radio modules (APMs) AFAR is localized in China. Processors required for high-speed data processing are also the result of their own research and development of Chinese firms.



    The existence of the conventional AWACS derivative became known in 2005. The actual prototype wearing a civilian-style blue/white color scheme and the test serial 'T0518 Red' is based on the radar-nosed Y8F-400 ('Category II Platform'). Contrary to some sources, the first prototype base aircraft was not the Y8F-600 ('Category III Platform'), though this platform with six-blade engines was used for later aircraft. The aircraft has a conventional 'saucer' rotodome mounted aft of the wings on twin inward-canted pylons; the greater part of the rotodome is dielectric. The Chinese aircraft is powered by four turboprop engines and has a greater range than offered by the Saab Microwave Systems Erieye. The aircraft nose was shorter and improved from usual glass-fared nose, like the Y-8F400 or Y-8-X, however the engine are not changed. A canoe shaped dome like E-8's array-phased antenna is located between the front and rear landing gears. The platform is characterized by the triple tail configuration (one large and two small), which was added for flight stability after the installation of new radar antenna.



    The ZDK-03 system is an advanced Airborne Warning and Control System with
    sophisticated integrated sensors and communications suite. Pakistan Air Force had
    signed a contract in 2008 with CETC of China for the joint development of 04
    ZDK-03 AWACS aircraft configured to Pakistan Air Force specifications. ZDK-03
    began its life in early 2000s as Project 021. It’s one of many AWACS development
    programs China undertook after the PHACLON deal with Israel had to be dropped
    under US pressure. Unlike the KJ-2000 project which depends on the development of
    a new Chinese AESA radar, Project 021 took the safer route, aimed at perfecting
    mature technology existing in China. It was designed to satisfy PLA’s combat needs in
    any contingency over Taiwan. After the success of KJ-2000, Project 021 saw
    continued development as a potential export model. Although employing older
    technologies it is a full-fledged AWACS rather than AEWs Western countries are
    exporting. The 021 prototype was checked out by PAF but ZDK-03, the version sold
    to Pakistan, is an extensive redevelopment of the original Project 021 with newer
    designs and technologies. ZDK-03 AEW&C Karakoram Eagle has single active
    electronically steered array radar from the Chinese KJ-2000 which is mounted on a
    turboprop-powered Y-8F600 in a rotating rotodome. Chinese KJ-2000 AWACS based
    on the IL-76 carries AESA Radar within its fixed rotodome in a triangular arrangement
    to provide a 360 degree coverage, on the other hand ZDK03 AEW&C Karakoram Eagle
    have a conventional rotating rotodome very much like that of E-3 and E-2C/D to
    provide a 360 degree coverage. It uses both mechanical scanning (for horizontal) and
    electronic scanning (for vertical). Its Communication System is also custom built for
    PAF. In order to make sure ZDK-03 communicate with both Western and Chinese
    planes in PAF, the communication systems on ZDK-03 uses a number of off the shelf
    News Archives
    NEWS ARCHIVESWestern components integrated by Chinese engineers with Chinese frontends and
    software. A comprehensive ECM has also been designed for the ZDK-203 to add
    versatility and teeth to PAF’s Air Defence System. Its Command and Control system
    is also state-of-the-art and highly sophisticated. The platform uses WJ6C turboprop
    engines and JL-4 composite propellers, which has better endurance and operates at
    higher altitude than the Swedish SAAB 2000 AEW platform acquired earlier by PAF.
    PAF plans to integrate both the Karakoram Eagle and the SAAB 2000 Erieye
    with its frontline fighters F-16 and JF-17 Thunder to develop a potent air
    defence system which can also deliver a knockout punch to any adversary.
    The induction of the ZDK-203 into PAF is another milestone in the exemplary history
    of cooperation between Pakistan and China. It was because of the high performance
    and low cost of this AEW&C system that prompted PAF to reduce its order for the
    Saab-2000 AEW&C Erieye from 6 to 4 systems.
    Pakistan’s reliance on its all weather friend China has been proved once again by the
    provision of the Karakoram Eagle. For years, Chinese defence industry suffered from
    the embargo by the western countries for releasing technology to China. It was
    forced to rely on the Soviet Union, whose defence industry was lagging behind the
    west. Even when China’s economy was booming and it was able to afford western
    technology; it was denied access to the same under one pretext or the other. This in
    a way was a boon since Chinese engineers, started with reverse engineering and
    soon mastered the art of indigenization. Pakistan has greatly benefited from the
    Chinese principles of self reliance and a number of its joint ventures with China, like
    the Main Battle Tanks, Destroyers, trainers and fighter aircraft resulted from the
    same spirit of sharing and transfer of technology.
    Airborne Early Warning Systems were one area, where China endeavoured to build on
    acquisition from the west and take advantage of its advanced prowess in the field. It
    planned to purchase the Israeli Phalcon Radar and mount it on the Russian IL-76.
    However, Israel was deterred by the US although India, which pitches itself as a rival
    of China in the region, was granted permission by the US to acquire the same.


    Source
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    Last edited by Jagga; 26th September 2013 at 00:32.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    Old article but contains interesting info about Erieye.


    Saab 2000 AEW&C prepares for duty FARNBOROUGH AIR SHOW » JULY 14, 2008 by DAVID DONALD July 3, 2008, 4:57 AM On April 30, Saab achieved a significant milestone with the first flight of the Saab 2000
    Erieye airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) aircraft, developed under Project
    Horizon for the Pakistan air force. The two-hour flight from Linköping, Sweden, was
    used to check out general handling and aircraft systems, and encountered no problems.
    The maiden flight came a month after the aircraft was officially rolled out in front of
    Pakistani commanders. Pakistan first contemplated the acquisition of an AEW system in the early 1980s, when
    Soviet and Afghan air force aircraft regularly intruded into Pakistani airspace. Other
    priorities, and the later U.S. arms embargo, meant that the requirement went unfulfilled.
    However, events in the wake of the 9/11 terrorist attacks–plus ongoing tensions with
    India–placed renewed emphasis on the AEW requirement. Pakistan selected the Erieye in 2005 and later revised the initial requirement for six
    platforms to five as a cost-reduction measure. It is buying a complete surveillance
    package, including ground-based systems, logistics support and mission training
    systems. The Saab 2000 AEW&C is the latest iteration of the Saab Microwave Systems Erieye
    concept. The five-operator system has increased command and control capabilities,
    including the Swedish Link-E system. The radar itself, which consists of 192 transmit/receive modules, has been improved
    with an extended early warning mode and the ability to spot hovering helicopters.
    Coverage has been increased to two 150-degree sectors (from 120-degrees, still with a
    1-degree beamwidth), with range out to the horizon (typically 199 to 217 miles). The
    radar offers a fully fused air/sea capability, and can spot maritime targets as small as jet-
    skis. Virtually all of the radar components have been replaced since the Erieye was first
    fielded in 1996, and all of the computer systems are COTS-based for cost-effective and
    rapid upgrade. Power output is around 20 percent greater than it was previously,
    although power requirements, and thus cooling, for the mission system have decreased
    by 30 percent. The effects of improvement can also be seen in a 53-percent reduction in
    system weight and 78-percent reduction in floor space. At the same time, computing power has increased a hundredfold. Backing up the radar is a sophisticated Saab Avitronics HES-21 ESM/protection suite that
    uses interferometer antennas and digital receivers for highly accurate tracking and
    ranging of emitters. HES-21 data is fused with that from the radar to provide detailed
    tracking, and it can generate its own tracks at ranges greater than that possible with
    the radar. The system also includes a comprehensive self-protection function,
    automatically controlling the launch of chaff and flares. Commuter on Patrol The choice of basing Erieye on a regional airliner has obvious benefits in terms of high
    reliability, cost-efficiency and low maintenance requirements, but also offers significant
    mission benefits. The type’s hot-and-high performance is critical in the Pakistani
    operational environment. The aircraft has a balanced field length of 4,593 feet, allowing
    it to use many small airports, and it can reach 25,000 feet in 16 minutes. Mission endurance is nine to 10 hours thanks to extra tanks in the cabin, and it can
    operate at up to 30,000 feet. At cruise power, the aircraft flies at about 340 knots,
    impressive for a turboprop. Using a 60-degree bank, the aircraft can complete a 180-
    degree turn at the end of a racetrack pattern in less than 30 seconds, with little
    interruption in track coverage. Crew comfort is a consideration for long-endurance patrols, and through its active noise
    cancellation system, the Saab 2000 offers very low cabin noise levels. A 7,500-foot cabin
    pressure can be maintained at operational altitude. The Pakistani aircraft have a galley
    and rest area, with a mission display in the latter so that resting crew can stay informed
    of emerging situations. The flight deck is a very modern airliner-style working
    environment, with a six-tube Collins ProLine 4 electronic flight information system. Erieye Conversions Saab Aerotech performs conversions in its facilities at Linköping. For the first aircraft, the
    work took less than a year to complete. The conversion comprises several airframe
    structural modifications, including strengthening the upper rear fuselage to mount the
    Erieye radar. The sensor is mounted higher than on the Saab 340 so it can “see” over the longer
    wings of the Saab 2000. The vertical fin is enlarged and strengthened to offset the
    aerodynamic effects of the radar and its support struts, while the wingtips are rebuilt
    and reinforced to carry antennas and chaff dispensers. The belly fairing is reworked and
    enlarged to mount elements of the self-protection system. Although the aircraft are pre-owned, structural life is not a factor. The airliner was
    designed with an initial structural life of 75,000 hours, and on average, the fleet has
    used less than 20 percent. Based on typical use rates, the remaining life of the AEW&C is
    more than 35 years, with options for further re-lifing. Modification work on the second
    aircraft was already under way at the time of the rollout.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    The PAF’s Saab 2000 AEW & C programme got underway in June 2006 when Islamabad finalised the purchase of five platforms. This contract was revised in May 2007 when the PAF decided to acquire only four AEW & C platforms, with the remaining three Saab 2000s being cannibalised for spares. The Saab 2000 is one of the fastest regional turboprop aircraft in existence, being able to cruise at a speed of more than 665kph (360 Knots). It made its maiden flight on March 26, 1992 and entered commercial airline service in 1994, a few months after its certification by the Joint Aviation Authorities in March and the Federal Aviation Administration in April. The Saab 2000’s powerplant comprises twin Rolls-Royce AE-2100 turboprop engines, each driving six-bladed Dowty Rotol propellers. The aircraft’s service ceiling is 31,000 feet, and the cockpit is equipped with a Rockwell Collins Pro Line 4
    avionics suite with integrated avionics processor, engine indication and crew alerting system, traffic alert and collision avoidance system, attitude heading and reference system, and a digital air data system. Cabin noise is reduced by an active noise control system comprising 72 microphones and 36 speakers, which generate anti-phase noise. Each of the PAF’s four Saab 2000 AEW & C platforms will be equipped with the FSR-890 Erieye radar built by Ericsson Microwave Systems. The S-band Erieye is a pulse-Doppler active phased-array radar operating within the 2GHz to 4GHz bandwidth. The 8 metre-long, 900kg antenna will be mounted on the upper dorsal spine of the Saab 2000’s fuselage. The radar’s dorsal unit (DU) will include the carbon-fibre radome, antenna array, RF distribution network, and 192 transmit/receive modules that will be cooled by ram-air. Each such module will comprise a power amplifier for the transmitted microwave signal, low-noise amplifiers as front-ends for the receiver channels, and phase shifters for accurate control of the signal phase in both transmit and receive modes. In the latter, amplification of the signal will be controlled as well. The phases and amplitudes will
    be continuously calibrated. Each T/R module will be connected to one vertical slotted waveguide on each side. An electronic switch in the module will select the side. By feeding the slotted waveguide separately in the upper and lower half, the beam will be shifted in elevation for height measurement. This shifting will be conducted by single-step phase shifters in the front-ends of the modules. A module-control databus will provide control of the modules to achieve instantaneous antenna beam-steering and the very low sidelobes required. A receiver/exciter processor will generate the pulsed microwave signals and send them to the antenna. It will also accept the received signals from the DU and generate both digitised video signals for signals processing as well as data signals for steering the beam. The transmit drive signal will be generated by a frequency synthesizer and will be up-converted and modulated for pulse compression (using polyphase coding), and will be amplified before being sent to the DU. A programmable signal-and-data processor will receive the returned radar signals from the receiver/exciter via optical data links in digitised quadrature video format. The radial velocity of detected airborne targets will be determined from the Doppler frequency via combined signals from the T/R modules. By combining these signals, the processor will modify the effective antenna sidelobe pattern to place nulls in the direction of hostile jammers. The processor will also perform coherent integration by Fast Fourier Transform that will form a Doppler filter bank. This will be followed by pulse compression, constant false alarm rate processing and binary integration. Due to all this, the Erieye’s processor will generate clutter- and interference-free position data for all targets.
    The two identical antennae in the DU will comprise a row of vertical slotted waveguides each with two sections that will each contain five slots providing low vertical sidelobes. By shifting the signal phase from the upper and lower parts respectively, two tilted lobes will be provided for measuring target altitudes. By adjusting the gain, a proper sidelobe in azimuth will be obtained. The Erieye will provide 270-degree airspace surveillance coverage and have an instrumental range of 450km and detection range of 350km in a dense hostile electronic warfare environment. The radar’s optimum performance (with very low sidelobes) will be over the 120° azimuthal sectors on each side of the aircraft. In addition, the Erieye will also have a secondary sea surveillance mode. For the RMAF, the Erieye will be configured for detection, tracking and height finding of airborne contacts, automatic track initiation and continuous tracking of up to 300 airborne targets, moving ground target detection and area ground mapping. In a severe EW environment the radar’s adaptive sidelobe cancelling feature will severely diminish the effects of hostile EW jamming. Pulse compression will be resorted to improve range resolution, while frequency agility will be used to avoid the negative effects resulting from hostile jamming. Doppler processing in both low- and medium-pulse repetition frequencies will be the main target detection mode amidst ground clutter, while horizontal antenna polarisation will provide an indication of the altitudes on which the tracked contracts are flying. High instantaneous bandwidth and Doppler resolution will enable the Erieye to undertake target analysis via non-cooperation recognition techniques. For detecting hostile airborne aircraft, two mean antenna scan rates of 12 degrees/ second or 3 degrees/second will be used, while a scan rate of 3 degrees/second will be used for detecting terrain-hugging or sea-skimming cruise missiles. Warships will be detected using a low-PRF without Doppler filtering. An adaptive radar control mode will control beam scheduling to share the total available time between search, confirmation od detections, and track updates. The Erieye will also
    include an IFF transponder.
    Inside the AEW & C platform will be five multifunction display/processor consoles that will make up the Central Tactical System (CTS) for providing tactical data management solutions via tactical aids, cues, alerts and bookkeeping functions. The
    platform will also have a communications suite comprising dual HF and five sets of V/UHF radios for enabling the exchange of tactical data with friendly land, sea and air forces as well as communicating with civilian ATC networks. A Link 16 data link
    will provide automatic clear or secure communications channels via one of the HF radios and one dedicated UHF transceiver. The data link will be used for relaying information such as tracking cues, contact range, bearing, velocity, altitude and intercept vectors to friendly airborne combat aircraft, while the RMAF’s ground- based Sector Operations Centres (SOC) will be networked with the AEW & C platform via the Erieye Ground Interface Segment (EGIS) that will provide two-way exchange of data between the airborne AEW & C platform and ground-based SOCs.
    The Erieye will provide 270-degree airspace surveillance coverage and have an instrumental range of 450km and detection range of 350km in a dense hostile electronic warfare environment. The radar’s optimum performance (with very low sidelobes) will be over the 120° azimuthal sectors on each side of the aircraft. In addition, the Erieye will also have a secondary sea surveillance mode. For the PAF, the Erieye will be configured for detection, tracking and height-finding of airborne contacts, automatic track initiation and continuous tracking of up to 300 airborne targets, moving ground target detection and area ground mapping. Inside the AEW
    & C platform will be five multifunction display/processor consoles that will make up
    the Central Tactical System (CTS) for providing tactical data management solutions via tactical aids, cues, alerts and bookkeeping functions. The platform will also have
    a communications suite comprising dual HF and five sets of V/UHF radios for enabling the exchange of tactical data with friendly land, sea and air forces as well as communicating with civilian ATC networks. A Link 16 data link will provide automatic clear or secure communications channels via one of the HF radios and one dedicated UHF transceiver. The data link will be used for relaying information such as tracking cues, contact range, bearing, velocity, altitude and intercept vectors to friendly airborne combat aircraft, while the PAF’s ground-based Sector Operations Centres (SOC) will be networked with the AEW & C platform via the Erieye Ground Interface Segment (EGIS) that will provide two-way exchange of data between the airborne AEW & C platform and ground-based SOCs. For self- protection, the Saab 2000 AEW & C will have on board the Saab-built CIDAS-300 fully integrated defensive aids suite that will include multi-spectral optronic sensors
    and a HES-21 ESM suite, designed for the protection of aircraft against infra-red/ laser-guided MANPADS). CIDAS-300 will in turn be fully integrated with Saab’s wingtip-mounted BOP-L lightweight chaff/flare countermeasures dispensing system. Designed from the outset as a fully integrated modular system, CIDAS-300 combines radar/laser/infra-red/ultra-violet missile approach warning and countermeasures dispensing functions in a single systems controller. Another component of CIDAS-300 will be the HES-21 ESM suite that combines the radar warning receiver and BOP-L dispenser with interferometer antenna arrays, a missile approach warning system, laser warning system, countermeasure dispensers, defensive aids controller, and a display-cum-control unit.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03


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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    The ZDK-03 AEW&C is mounted on a chinese Shaanxi Y-9
    Range: 7,800 km
    Length: 36 m
    Wingspan: 38 m
    Weight: 39,000 kg
    Cruise speed: 650 km/h
    Engine type: Turboprop

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03



    ZDK-03 (S/N 12-004)



    -------------------

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    11-001



    11-002


    12-002


    12-003


    13-003
    Last edited by Jagga; 28th February 2015 at 21:12.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03

    That's all four+1 ZDK-03 Karakoram eagles accounted for.

    Serial Numbers
    11-001
    11-002
    12-002
    12-003
    13-003
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    Last edited by Jagga; 28th February 2015 at 21:07.

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    Re: Pakistan Air force AEW&C.The SAAB Erieye and ZDK-03





    Grainy Picture of PAF SAAB 2000 Erieye participating in Exercise sword of Abdullah April 2014 in Saudi Arabia.
    The Following User Says Thank You to Jagga For This Useful Post: Muse


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